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Table 3 Facilitators of PCC for immigrants and refugees

From: Barriers and facilitators of patient centered care for immigrant and refugee women: a scoping review

LevelArticulated by (occurrences across included studies if > 1)
PatientClinicianBoth
PatientAll patients
None
All patients
None
All patients
none
Women patients
none
Women patients
none
Women patients
Communication skills/style
ClinicianAll patients
• Listen to patient; focus attention on them, not computer
• Ask questions to fully understand patient’s concern
• Acknowledge concerns
• Offer comfort and encouragement
• Prepare ahead of time
• Be honest about diagnosis
• Treat patient as person and not a disease
Women patients
• Time to ask questions
• Lack of judgment
• Being provided with information so they could be involved in decisions
• Perceived clinical competency
All patients
• Coordinate tests and appointments (2)
• Personal dedication (2)
• Devote more time to consultations or divide tasks into multiple consultations (2)
• Self-awareness of the influence of one’s own culture
• Take time to describe how the healthcare system works
• Ensure the patient accepts use of an interpreter
• Learn a few words of patient’s language
Women patients
none
All patients
• Establish rapport: greet and welcome the patient, take time to chat informally, adopt a friendly, caring and respectful manner (7)
• Clear communication: speak slowly, use short sentences, explain topics in various ways, avoid medical jargon (4)
• Doctor of same culture or gender, or of older age (3)
• Take extra time to ensure/check comprehension (3)
• Recognize/accommodate/respect cultural differences (3)
• Become familiar with patient’s culture and migration journey (3)
• Involve personal support network as interpreters (2)
• Use skilled interpreters rather than family (2)
• Use verbal and audiovisual rather than written communication (may lack literacy even in own written language (2)
• Personalize care, don’t generalize to culture or country of origin
Women patients
• Gender (2)
• Communication skills
• Ethnicity/religion
Organization or systemAll patients
none
Women patients
none
All patients
• Collaboration with community agencies
• Promote a culture of diversity
• Access to language services (2)
Women patients
none
All patients
• Offer orientation to or tours of healthcare services (4)
• Multidisciplinary teamwork (3)
• Continuity of health care team
Women patients
none