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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and other variables by social networks at baseline (N = 100)

From: Social networks and their influences on nutrient intake, nutritional status and physical function in community-dwelling ethnically diverse older adults: a mixed-methods longitudinal study

  Integrated SN (n = 52)Non-integrated SN (n = 48) 
VariableLocally integrated (N = 44)Wider community (N = 8)Family dependent (N = 25)Local self-contained (N = 17)Private restricted (N = 6)P-valueα
Age Mean (SD)70.8 (7.8)75.3 (7.6)68.5 (8.2)70.6 (7.2)74.3 (11.8)0.230
Sex N (%)Male28 (63.6)3 (37.5)19 (76.0)6 (35.3)4 (66.7)0.045
Female16 (36.4)5 (62.5)6 (24.0)11 (64.7)2 (33.3)
Marital Status¥Married34 (77.3)4 (50.0)20 (80.0)6 (35.3)2 (33.3)0.004
Not married10 (22.7)4 (50.0)5 (20.0)11 (64.7)4 (66.7)
Ethnicity N (%)Caribbean16 (36.4)4 (50.0)6 (24.0)12 (70.6)3 (50.0)0.434
Pakistani12 (27.2)2 (25.0)6 (24.0)3 (17.6)0 (0.0)
African7 (16.0)1 (12.5)7 (28.0)1 (5.9)3 (50.0)
Indian3 (6.8)1 (12.5)2 (8.0)1 (5.9)0 (0.0)
Bangladeshi2 (4.5)0 (0.0)2 (8.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Othersβ4 (9.1)0 (0.0)2 (8.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Faith/Religion N (%)Christian22 (50.0)5 (62.5)13 (52.0)11 (64.7)5 (83.3)0.759
Muslim18 (40.9)2 (25.0)9 (35.0)4 (23.5)1 (16.7)
Sikh3 (6.8)1 (12.5)2 (8.0)1 (5.9)0 (0.0)
Hindu1 (2.3)0 (0.0)1 (4.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
No religion0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (5.9)0 (0.0)
Self-R health N (%)Excellent/good35 (79.1)4 (50.0)16 (64.0)7 (44.4)1 (16.7)0.005
Fair/poor9 (20.9)4 (50.0)9 (36.0)10 (55.6)5 (83.3)
IMD Quartiles N (%)1 (Most deprived)17 (38.6)2 (25.0)5 (20.0)4 (23.5)5 (83.3)0.116
27 (15.9)1 (12.5)8 (32.0)3 (17.6)0 (0.0)
39 (20.5)1 (12.5)5 (20.0)6 (35.3)1 (16.7)
4 (least deprived)11 (25.0)4 (50.0)7 (28.0)4 (23.5)0 (0.0)
SPPB Mean (SD)9.9 (2.5)8.6 (3.2)9.7 (2.8)7.8 (3.6)5.7 (4.6)0.014
HGS Mean (SD)27.7 (8.9)24 (5.4)29.1 (9.9)22.8 (9.4)26.3 (14.3)0.231
MNA-SF Mean (SD)12.4 (1.7)12.8 (1.1)12.7 (1.7)12.2 (1.8)11.5 (3.3)0.296
BMI categories* N (%)Underweight0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0.852
Normal2 (4.5)1 (12.5)2 (8.0)2 (11.8)0 (0.0)
overweight13 (29.5)3 (37.5)9 (36.0)4 (23.5)2 (33.3)
Obese29 (65.9)4 (50.0)14 (56.0)11 (64.7)4 (66.7)
Number of Disease Mean (SD)1.8 (1.0)2.3 (1.5)2.1 (1.4)2.5 (1.7)2.7 (2.4)0.334
Diseases n (%)Type 2 Diabetes18 (40.9)4 (50.0)15 (60.0)10 (58.8)4 (66.7)0.466
 CVD10 (22.7)1 (12.5)3 (12.0)4 (23.5)2 (33.3)0.688
 Osteoarthritis10 (22.7)1 (12.5)6 (24.0)6 (35.3)1 (16.7)0.742
 High BP21 (48.8)5 (62.5)13 (52.0)11 (64.7)3 (60.0)0.813
 High Cholesterol5 (11.4)1 (12.5)5 (20.0)1 (5.9)1 (15.7)0.735
 Cancerμ4 (9.1)1 (12.5)2 (8.0)0 (0.00)2 (33.3)0.191
 Others5 (11.4)1 (12.5)4 (16.0)2 (11.8)1 (16.7)0.987
Length of stay in UK47.7 (11.9)50.6 (6.2)34.7 (20.1)45.7 (11.3)20.5 (10.6)0.001
Living alone %11.650.08.055.666.70.001
Supplement useYes16 (37.2)3 (37.5)8 (32.0)11 (61.1)1 (16.7)0.236
No27 (62.8)5 (62.5)17 (68.0)7 (38.9)5 (83.3)
  1. SD Standard deviation; IMD Index of Multiple Deprivation; MNA-SF Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form; SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery; HGS Handgrip strength; Self-rated health was coded as excellent = 1, good = 2, fair = 3 and poor = 4. These further categorised as 1 = Excellent/Good and 2 = Fair/Poor; BMI = Body Mass Index *WHO guidance on BMI thresholds for Asian populations (World Health Organization, 2004) was used to categorise BMI of South Asian participants, and the standard BMI categories were used for Caribbean and African participants. Note age is in years.¥ This includes all those that are single, separated, divorced and widowed. μ types of cancer: prostate cancer (70%) and bone cancer (30%); Others refers to diseases such kidney diseases, acid reflux, ear and eye problems, and osteoporosis; α Significant differences between social networks. β ‘Others’ referring to mixed ethnicities e.g. African Asians