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Table 3 Content of the National Traffic Safety Educational Program

From: Developing a national road traffic safety education program in Iran

Program content Description Quotation
Education of traffic rules and regulations Traffic laws and regulations for untrained users and limited educations for driver’s license applicants. “Learn the laws correctly.”
“Which cyclist, motorcyclist, or pedestrian have been trained so far?”
Seat belt Use of a seat belt reduces injury and death. “Seat belts are not used for rear-seat passengers.”
Child seat This device is not used in Iran, especially for those over 5 years old. “If a child seat is used, severe injuries turn into mild injuries”
Safety helmet The most effective method is to reduce head injuries and number of mortality caused by motorcycle and bicycle accidents. “Macan Band wore safety helmets in the concert while driving a motorbike. The day after, all youth were wearing a helmet.”
Benefits of safe passage Benefits of safe passage both for pedestrians and two- or more-wheeled vehicle drivers must be taught. “What is the benefit of the bridge? What is the line? Many think these are only decorations.”
Type of safe passage Safe passage must be taught to all age groups of pedestrians, drivers and other road users. In many cases, the users are not aware of such things. “Who has ever taught me how to cross the street”
“The pedestrian is crossing diagonally through middle of the square.”
Place of safe passage Place of safe passage should be taught to all road users. “Pedestrians don’t know that they should not enter the highway. Drivers park in the pavement and pedestrians walk in the street”
Possible risks while passing Problems that occur to all users while passing should be taught. “Pedestrians will pass through the traffic lights and cars, and don’t care about the lines.”
Traffic light principles “Have we (pedestrians) ever paid attention to the lights? Everyone thinks the lights are only for drivers.”
Observing longitudinal and transverse spacing “Many people don’t know they have to drive between lines to avoid accidents.”
“Not observing the distance causes chain accidents”
Overtaking and speed “Instead of slowing down, the driver increases the speed on the pedestrian lines.”
“For example, suspending a person’s license at unauthorized speed and having forced training courses”
Fatigue and drowsiness “If we had sleep control training, the accidents would be declined after a year.”
Clean transport Promoting public transport system and greater accessibility reduce the volume of traffic and pollution. Public transport infrastructures must be created and managed in accordance with world standards. “In Tehran, 2015, a number of 5417 people died only due to air pollution. 85% of air pollution is caused by vehicles and motorcycles.
Demanding and acquaintance with citizenship rights The aspect associated with introduction to traffic rights and needs. People must be able to demand self-identification needs in traffic environments, including road and vehicle. “Naturally, the greatest demand impact is in the age group of 20–30.”
“Demand associated with vehicle must be taught to people, so that people know about the features of a safe car that is the right of a citizen.”
Increased positive behaviors Use of pavements for walking and not passing the roadway. Thanking the driver who allows passing the street and crossing over the right side and all the positive behaviors that can affect users in the traffic environment should be taught. “We have a culture of courtesy that must be extended to driving.”
“If I pass the pedestrian crossing, the next one also passes the line, so those who cross anywhere other than pedestrian crossing will be ashamed.”
Right of priority “Here, everyone thinks they have the right to do anything. The driver says he has a right to cross first, the same goes for pedestrians.”
Mutual respect and lack of aggression with verbal and nonverbal movements “I should respect the traffic light. This is for my safety. I should respect the officer and don’t argue with him.”
“The passenger kicks the door of the taxi and insults the driver. The passenger slowly crosses the street to offend the driver.”
Social and religious laws (traffic ethics) Every user should be taught about the rights of him/herself and others. In most countries around the world, any kind of traffic violation is the violation of public rights (Arasteh). “Talking about social rights and teaching the accidental and traffic issues.”
“Motorcycles shouldn’t come to the pavements. It is a violation of rights of others.”
Visibility Discussing “visibility”, it is necessary to pay attention to the environmental structures and appropriate light for the passages. Also, it is about the society culture and dark clothes for women and elderly, and depending on clothes for education, the use of appropriate reflectors in the bags, shoes, buttons, etc. In this regard, the manufacturers must be used. In case of vehicles, it should be noticed that rear window and other parts as well as the headlights must be designed in a way to provide maximum visibility. “It’s hard to see at nights. Some neighborhoods have no lights and we can’t see someone with a black cloak crossing the street. These accidents are very common in the streets. The passers die and the drivers get away.”
Distraction Various distractions of eating, drinking, smoking, looking at environments, mobile phones, and talking with fellows should be taught to all road users. “They should pay more attention. Both the driver and the passer while crossing the street should pay attention to both sides, but unfortunately,…”
“Many accidents are caused by mobile phones.”
Technical educations Technical knowledge needs of a person such as car safety conditions before moving, activities required at the time of tire burst, braking control, etc. Competence of a person for driving two- or more-wheeled vehicles and health of the person are the cases that require education. “The technical aspects required for road and vehicles, so that a person knows about the slippery sign.”
Driving in certain weather conditions Depending on various weather conditions in different seasons and also due to the specific climate conditions in different regions of the country, these cases are taught, training in mountainous, desert, and rainy areas. “In the snow and frost, I can’t control the car because of tires.”
Effect of prescription and non-prescription drugs and alcohol on behavior of users The use of alcohol, amphetamines, euphoric stimulants, psychotropic drugs, even authorized and prescription drugs, for treatment and their effects on users must be taught. “They need to teach young people that driving under the influence can ruin the lives of others and destroy families”
“Doctors must say the effect of drugs on driving while prescribing the drugs”
Conditional driving Given the increased number of non-communicable diseases in the country, the case detection is required and a treatment must be considered for those with specific diseases. It is essential to consider certain rules for issuing conditional certification. The driver’s license of these people must be regularly checked for treatment. Diseases or disorders of individuals that affect their driving should be identified and managed through education and license revocation or limitation. “No license will be eternal, and in case of non-competency, the license should be revoked.”
“There was a case that after frequent accidents, the schizophrenia was confirmed, and when the police stopped him, he claimed to be a psychopath; this is interesting that his license was not revoked.”
Sleep disorders One of the most important problems, especially in professional drivers, is sleep disorders, its symptoms and treatment methods. In overweight people, the neck circumference must be measured and sleep disorders should be evaluated. “From talking about sleeping to other subjects.”
Diseases and traffic behavior A variety of mental disorders such as hyperactivity, epilepsy, etc. Physical diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and personality problems should be screened and treated, and the necessary cases for management of these diseases during driving must be trained. “Regarding the diabetes¸ the training must be done by the doctors. Some people always have chocolate in the car.”
First aid and medical emergencies In case of an accident, what activities must be done to minimize damage? First aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, dealing with ordinary and injured people, transport of injured patient, movement of injured patient; “Management in the event of an accident, reduced consequences, assistance, saving the life of others, and subsequent training, which are ignored, what could happen to someone who is injured after 3 months?”