Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive statistics of women and men in the study (in means and percentages)

From: Work-life balance and self-reported health among working adults in Europe: a gender and welfare state regime comparative analysis

  Nordic Conservative Liberal Southern CEE
Variables Women (n = 1770) Men (n = 1723) Women (n = 4535) Men (n = 4443) Women (n = 1113) Men (n = 1252) Women (n = 3741) Men (n = 4030) Women (n = 5322) Men (n = 4346)
  % or Mean % or Mean % or Mean % or Mean % or Mean % or Mean % or Mean % or Mean % or Mean % or Mean
Work-Life Balance
 Good 86.89 85.61 85.05 81.99 84.64 80.99 80.99 76.48 84.74 80.9
 Poor 13.11 14.39 14.95 18.01 15.36 19.01 19.01 23.52 15.26 19.1
Self-Reported Health
 Good 80.85 80.79 79.79 80.1 87.15 84.82 79.12 81.22 73.02 76.25
 Poor 19.15 19.21 20.22 19.9 12.85 15.18 20.88 18.78 26.98 23.75
Age 44.59 44.49 42.73 42.82 42.28 43.12 41.59 42.26 43.44 42.42
Household Size 2.76 2.79 2.67 2.65 2.81 2.87 2.93 2.9 2.87 2.89
Marital Status
 Single or Widowed 31.58 28.09 38.17 33.2 39.8 30.75 38.23 35.93 31.75 30.67
 Married or Cohabiting 68.42 71.91 61.83 66.8 60.2 69.25 61.77 64.07 68.25 69.33
Living with a child
 No 49.49 51.31 47.78 55.84 49.78 57.59 47.79 55.31 47.43 55.87
 Yes 50.51 48.69 52.22 44.16 50.22 42.41 52.21 44.69 52.57 44.13
Education
 Early Childhood 0.28 0.24 0.32 0.72 0.24 0.94 1.36
 Primary 0.56 1.22 2.4 2.32 0.81 2.32 7.11 7.64 0.23 0.46
 Lower Secondary 4.63 8.47 10.39 11.01 20.84 27 17.94 21.34 7.22 8.86
 Upper Secondary 27.85 39.12 46.46 50.51 20.4 20.77 27.69 30.65 48.37 58.19
 Post Secondary Non-Tertiary 8.7 9.05 5.49 4.52 8.81 6.79 10.85 10.5 9.45 8.31
 Short Cycle Tertiary 22.82 14.57 12.04 8.24 12.94 11.98 12.67 10.05 7.2 4.37
 Bachelor 14.97 9.87 9.61 8.6 20.04 19.81 17.05 12.9 14.66 9.96
 Master 18.7 16.42 12.13 13.19 14.38 9.98 4.7 4.27 12.34 9.18
 Doctorate 1.47 1.28 1.23 1.31 1.08 1.12 1.04 1.29 0.54 0.67
ISCO
 Armed Forces Occupation 0.75 0.07 0.56 0.16 0.03 1.04 0.15 0.81
 Managers 5.2 9 4.63 8.35 11.86 15.97 3.42 5.46 5.07 7.89
 Professionals 36.05 25.48 21.35 17.17 25.07 18.37 20.85 14.07 22.66 10.26
 Technicians and Associate 19.15 14.74 15.41 15.55 11.86 10.86 7.51 10.05 11.78 10.38
 Clerical Support Workers 6.84 4.24 15.21 7.22 12.85 4.31 15.24 8.09 10.28 4.16
 Service and Sales 22.49 11.14 27.32 12.6 28.84 13.26 29.72 18.06 28.18 13.09
 Skilled Agricultural, Forestry and Fish 1.36 3.19 0.57 1.8 0.9 5.19 1.76 4.09 1.94 3.06
 Craft and Related Trades 1.81 15.9 1.52 19.42 0.72 13.02 3.56 19.73 5.79 27.47
 Plant and Machine Operators and Assembly 1.75 11.43 1.32 10.42 1.44 11.1 2.67 9.06 3.96 15.42
 Elementary Occupation 5.37 4.12 12.59 6.69 6.47 7.75 15.24 10.35 10.18 7.46
NACE
 Agric 1.81 4.82 0.97 2.86 1.35 6.63 2.51 5.36 3.25 5.84
 Industry 9.72 30.82 9.72 31.56 7.37 27.56 10.48 27.82 17.16 39.76
 Service and Sales 81.19 59.61 79.96 61.33 84.64 61.74 73.96 61.74 72.57 50.21
 Other 7.29 4.76 9.35 4.25 6.65 4.07 13.04 5.09 7.03 4.19
Sector
 Private 44.86 70.75 63.97 73.42 55.35 76.84 73.22 77.1 61.95 76.21
 Public 50.96 23.51 25.12 18.79 37.47 19.49 20.69 16.9 33.62 19.1
 Joint Private-Public 2.88 4.53 6.26 5.65 2.79 2.32 2.65 2.48 2.33 2.92
 NGO 0.56 0.7 3.09 1.19 3.41 1.12 0.37 0.4 0.9 0.37
 Other 0.73 0.5 1.57 0.95 0.99 0.24 3.07 3.13 1.2 1.4
Shift Work
 Yes 19.77 14.68 16.82 18.16 21.65 21.57 20.26 20.87 30.01 24.76
 No 80.23 85.32 83.18 81.84 78.35 78.43 79.74 79.13 69.99 75.24
Weekly Hours
 30 h and Below 27.12 15.96 44.98 16.36 48.7 22.52 34.43 20.42 19.6 15.19
 31–40 h 63.11 62.04 44.21 59.87 39.44 46.01 50.63 51.22 63.28 54.58
 41–50 h 7.63 14.68 7.96 15.71 7.64 18.21 10.24 17.2 12.98 19.44
 51h hrs 2.15 7.31 2.84 8.06 4.22 13.26 4.7 11.17 4.13 10.79
Working Arrangement
 Set by Company 36.16 32.97 51.03 52.31 62.08 51.84 69.07 64.27 72.27 68.43
 Can Choose between Fixed Schedule 9.1 6.5 12.22 7.79 7.91 8.71 6.42 5.04 6.95 5.57
 Flexible Time 42.88 42.77 24.17 24.02 20.58 22.28 11.31 9.9 11.01 11.9
 Working Time is Determined by Self 11.86 17.76 12.59 15.89 9.43 17.17 9.77 20.79 9.77 14.1
Type of Employment
 Employee 93.95 87.35 90.76 87.19 90.66 77.4 85 76 90.83 85.07
 Self-Employed 6.05 12.65 9.24 12.81 9.34 22.6 15 24 9.17 14.93