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Table 2 Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors in six cohorts of middle-aged women

From: Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors among women aged 45–54 years in Gothenburg, Sweden, from 1980 to 2014

  Cohort 1
Born
1925–1934
Year of
examination
1980
Cohort 2
Born
1931–1940
Year of
examination
1985
Cohort 3
Born
1936–1945
Year of
examination
1990
Cohort 4
Born
1941–1950
Year of
examination
1995
Cohort 5
Born
1953
Year of
examination
2003–2004
Cohort 6
Born
1963
Year of
examination
2013–2014
P for trend P for
Cohort 5 versus cohort 6
Mean change between the studied cohorts P for mean change
Variables N = 618 N = 207 N = 218 N = 241 N = 667 N = 343     
Age, mean (SD) 49.5 (2.9) 49.8 (2.9) 49.1 (2.6) 49.7 (2.5) 50.2 (0.4) 50.0 (.0)     
Age, median (Q1; Q3) 49 (47; 52) 50 (47; 52) 49 (47; 51) 50 (48; 51) 50 (50; 50) 50 (50; 50)     
Height, cm 163.8 (5.8) 164.9 (6.2) 165.4 (6.1) 166.0 (6.4) 166.0 (6.8) 165.9 (6.6) < 0.0001 n.s. 0.40 (0.10–0.70) 0.020
Weight, kg 66.2 (10.8) 65.9 (11.3) 68.1 (12.7) 69.2 (11.9) 70.5 (13.0) 70.7 (14.0) < 0.0001 n.s. 1.06 (0.66–1.47) 0.0019
Waist circumference, cm 80.1 (10.7) 77.9 (10.4) 80.7 (10.3) 83.1 (11.4) 88.4 (11.7) < 0.0001 <.0001 2.20 (−0.17; 4.57) 0.060
BMI, kg/m2 24.7 (3.9) 24.3 (4.0) 24.9 (4.5) 25.1 (4.2) 25.6 (4.5) 25.7 (4.9) < 0.0001 n.s 0.27 (0.09–0.44) 0.014
BMI four categories, % (n)        0.0012 n.s   
BMI < 20 4.7 (29) 11.1 (23) 6.9 (15) 7.9 (19) 5.0 (33) 7.3 (25)    1.01 (0.93–1.11) 0.78
20 ≤ BMI < 25 55.5 (343) 54.6 (113) 55.1 (120) 49.0 (118) 49.2 (328) 47.2 (162)    0.93 (0.89–0.98) 0.0021
25 ≤ BMI < 30 29.5 (182) 25.6 (53) 25.7 (56) 32.0 (77) 30.7 (205) 28.9 (99)    1.02 (0.97–1.07) 0.51
BMI ≥ 30 10.4 (64) 8.7 (18) 12.4 (27) 11.2 (27) 15.1 (101) 16.6 (57)    1.13 (1.05–1.21) 0.0005
Systolic BP, mmHg, mean (SD) 135.3 (20.7) 128.7 (18.5) 125.5 (17.0) 128.4 (17.9) 123.1 (19.0) 129.3 (16.5) < 0.0001 <.0001 −1.25 (−3.75; 1.24) 0.24
Diastolic BP, mmHg, mean (SD) 85.1 (11.1) 81.0 (9.4) 80.2 (9.3) 82.9 (9.9) 82.6 (10.8) 81.6 (9.8) < 0.0001 n.s −0.29 (−1.5; 0.92) 0.55
Blood pressure treatment, % (n) 9.71 (60) 6.28 (13) 10.55 (23) 7.88 (19) 9.60 (64) 7.62 (26) n.s. n.s. 0.98 (0.91–1.06) 0.66
Hypertension, % (n) 37.7 (233) 29.5 (61) 25.7 (56) 30.3 (73) 29.7 (198) 24.5 (84) < 0.0001 0.081 0.91 (0.87–0.95) < 0.0001
Serum cholesterol, mmol/L 6.23 (1.09) 6.23 (1.21) 5.82 (1.15) 5.60 (1.08) 5.44 (0.93) 5.43 (0.98) < 0.0001 n.s. −0.19 (−0.26; −0.11) 0.0025
Serum triglycerides, mmol/L 1.07 (0.54) 1.17 (0.68) 1.27 (0.51) 1.38 (0.75) 1.24 (1.14) 1.05 (0.67) < 0.0001 0.0007 0.01 (−0.09; 0.10) 0.87
Self-reported diabetes, % (n) 1.78 (11) 2.42 (5) 0.92 (2) 2.07 (5) 1.95 (13) 1.17 (4) n.s. n.s. 0.97 (0.82–1.15) 0.72
Smoking habits, % (n)        0.0006 0.0006   
Never smoked 51.7 (319) 44.9 (92) 53.2 (116) 45.2 (109) 37.5 (250) 58.6 (201)    0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.13
Former smokers 13.8 (85) 20.0 (41) 15.6 (34) 29.5 (71) 36.3 (242) 28.6 (98)    1.28 (1.21–1.35) < 0.0001
Current smokers, 1–14 g/day 22.2 (137) 13.7 (28) 11.9 (26) 8.7 (21) 16.4 (109) 7.6 (26)    0.86 (0.81–0.91) < 0.0001
Current smokers, > 14 g/day 12.3 (76) 21.5 (44) 19.3 (42) 16.6 (40) 9.8 (65) 5.2 (18)    0.88 (0.82–0.94) < 0.0001
Physical activity in leisure time, % (n)        < 0.0001 0.0003   
 Sedentary 23.5 (145) 19.5 (40) 13.5 (29) 28.6 (50) 13.8 (92) 10.5 (36)    0.85 (0.80–0.90) < 0.0001
 Light PA 68.7 (424) 73.2 (150) 75.8 (163) 56.0 (98) 62.3 (415) 53.9 (185)    0.88 (0.84–0.92) < 0.0001
 Regular PA 7.8 (48) 7.3 (15) 10.7 (23) 15.4 (27) 23.9 (159) 35.6 (122)    1.49 (1.39–1.60) < 0.0001
Permanent stress, % (n) 16.4 (101) 16.1 (33) 19.5 (42) 17.0 (25) 22.8 (151) 22.2 (76) 0.0016 n.s. 1.09 (1.03–1.16) 0.0017
Born in Sweden, % (n) 86.57 (535)    81.33 (196) 76.61 (511) 75.22 (258) < 0.0001 n.s. 0.85 (0.80–0.91) < 0.0001
  1. Continuous variables are presented as the mean (SD). Proportions are presented as percentages (number). BMI Body mass index;
  2. BP Blood pressure
  3. Waist data were missing in the first cohort and for another 10 women, a total of 628 women
  4. Body mass index data were missing for nine women
  5. Systolic blood pressure data were missing for 21 women
  6. Diastolic blood pressure data were missing for 29 women
  7. Triglyceride data were missing for 28 women
  8. A diabetes history was missing for two women
  9. A history of smoking was missing for four women
  10. A history of physical activity level during leisure time was missing for 73 women
  11. Data on self-perceived stress were missing for 106 women