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Table 2 Competencies and Sexual and Reproductive Behavior of Girls in Grade 7 by Age Categories

From: Intra-grade variability in educational and psychosocial competencies of school going adolescent girls, in the coastal region of Kenya: implications for school based interventions

Variable 10–14 years 15 plus years OR/Coeff (95% CI)
P-value
unadjusted
OR/Coeff (95% CI)
P-value
adjusted*
Educational competencies (n(%))
 Highest level of school you would like to complete
  Up to secondary school 305 (15.5) 372 (24.5) ref ref
  Beyond secondary school 1666 (84.5) 1146 (75.5) 0.59 b (0.50, 0.69) < 0.001 0.63b (0.53, 0.74) < 0.001
 Highest level of schooling you actually expect to complete
 Up to secondary school 922 (46.8) 874 (57.6) ref ref
  Beyond secondary school 1049 (53.2) 644 (42.4) 0.68b (0.59, 0.77) < 0.001 0.78 b (0.68, 0.89) < 0.001
 Ever repeated a grade
  No 927 (47.0) 261 (17.2) ref ref
  Yes 1044 (55.0) 1257 (82.8) 4.10 b (3.50, 4.81) < 0.001 4.12 b (3.51, 4.82) < 0.001
 School engagement (n(%))
  You do not feel confident answering questions in class (agree) 640 (32.6) 564 (37.3) 1.24 b (1.07, 1.43) 0.003 1.18 b (1.02, 1.36) 0.025
  You always complete your school work (agree) 1837 (93.3) 1412 (93.0) 0.96 b (0.74, 1.22) 0.732 1.03 b (0.80, 1.32) 0.829
  You believe you are capable of doing well in school (agree) 1917 (97.6) 1461 (96.6) 0.70 b (0.45, 1.08) 0.109 0.70 b (0.45, 1.09) 0.119
  You often do not understand the lessons (agree) 648 (32.9) 632 (41.6) 1.47 b (1.27, 1.71) < 0.001 1.37 b (1.18, 1.60) < 0.001
 Educational skills (mean,(SD),n)
  Cognitive skills (score:0–15) 9.5 (3.0) 1971 8.3 (3.1) 1518 -1.13c (−1.35, −0.091) < 0.001 −0.99 c (−1.19, −0.78) < 0.001
  Literacy skills (score:0–4) 3.9 (0.5) 1971 3.8 (0.8) 1518 − 0.19 c (− 0.24, − 0.13) < 0.001 − 0.19 c (− 0.25, − 0.13) d < 0.001
  Mathematics skills (score:0–38) 30.2 (3.5) 1971 28.9 (4.2) 1158 − 1.26 c (− 1.58, − 0.94) < 0.001 − 1.12 c (− 1.43, − 0.81) < 0.003
Personal Competencies
 Self-efficacy (mean,(SD),n) (scale:0–10; alpha: 0.7337) 5.3 (2.6) 1971 5.3 (2.6) 1518 − 0.015 c (− 0.19, 0.16) 0.869 0.036 c (−0.15, 0.22) 0.702
 Decision-making (mean,(SD),n) (scale:0–13; alpha: 0.7790) 6.1 (3.3) 1971 6.4 (3.2) 1518 0.32 c (0.086, 0.54) 0.007 0.36 c (0.13, 0.60) 0.002
 SRH Knowledge (mean,(SD),n)
 Pregnancy knowledge (score:0–4) 2.5 (0.6) 919 2.5 (0.6) 761 −0.045 c (− 0.10,0.0096) 0.105 −0.040 c (− 0.097, 0.017) 0.171
 Can spontaneously name a method of modern contraception (n (%)) 908 (46.1) 870 (57.3) 1.60 b (1.38, 1.83) < 0.001 1.56 b (1.36, 1.80) < 0.001
 STI knowledge score (score:0–4) 0.42 (0.92) 1971 0.43 (0.91) 1518 0.0068 c (−0.031, 0.045) 0.727 0.0078 c (−0.031, 0.046) 0.687
 HIV knowledge score (score:0–11) 8.0 (1.8) 1971 7.9 (1.8) 1518 −0.017 c (− 0.043, 0.0089) 0.197 −0.017 (− 0.043, 0.009) 0.192
 Sexual and Reproductive Health Experiences (n(%))
 Started menstruation 1258 (67.0) 1467 (97.2) 16.79 b (12.28, 22.95) < 0.001 16.37 b (11.97, 22.39) < 0.001
 Ever had sex 145 (7.4) 249 (16.4) 2.43 b (1.96, 3.02) < 0.001 2.33 b (1.85, 2.91) < 0.001
Social competencies
 Gender Norms (mean,(SD),n) (score:0–4; alpha: 0.6529 1.39 (1.04) 1971 1.29 (1.04) 1518 −0.11 (−0.18, − 0.04) 0.002 −0.091 (− 0.16, − 0.022) 0.010
 GBV: Agrees with IPV in marriage (n(%)) 1258 (63.8) 1061 (69.9) 1.26 b (1.08, 1.47) 0.003 1.17 b (1.00, 1.37) 0.050
  1. bOdds ratios derived using generalized estimating equations and robust standard errors, factoring clustering at the school level and stratified by subcounty
  2. c Linear regression incorporating clustering effects or Wilcoxon Rank sum test was used in instances where continuous outcome data was not normally distributed
  3. dDifference between adjusted and unadjusted numbers tended to occur after 3 decimal points
  4. *Adjusted for socio-economic status, who the girl lives with, parent survival status and religion