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Table 2 Characteristics of Primary Studies Included in this Review

From: Peer pressure and alcohol consumption in adults living in the UK: a systematic qualitative review

Reference; Participants, n; CASP Participant demographics Drinking status Method of data collection
Black & Monrouxe 2014 [30]
n = 41 (qualitative data sub-group)
CASP 13
• Students from 3 medical schools in England and Wales
• No demographics provided for qualitative sub-group
• No details provided for qualitative sub-group Questionnaire with qualitative ‘narrative’ question
Carpenter et al. 2008 [31]
n = 12
CASP 14
• Female students at Leeds University (North England), from a range of academic courses
• Aged 18–23 years
• No details provided 2 focus groups
Conroy & de Viser 2012 [32]
n = 12
CASP 15
• Undergraduate students
• Aged 20–29 years
• 7 males, 5 females
• All from the south of England
• Regular consumers of alcohol Semi-structured interviews
Conroy & de Viser 2014 [33]
n = 5
CASP 15
• English university students
• Aged 19–22 years
• Non-drinkers (both lifelong non-drinkers and former drinkers (abstinence of ≥6 months)) In-depth, semi-structured interviews
Emslie et al. 2012 [40]
n = 36
CASP 17
• 15 males, 21 females
• Aged 35–50 years (3 younger than 35, 2 over 50)
• All respondents were white and lived in the west of Scotland
• A socioeconomically diverse sample
• Half (8 males and 11 females) reported drinking over the ‘recommended’ weekly limit (14 and 21 units for women and men respectively).
• Six of these could be classed as ‘harmful’ drinkers (over 35 units for women and 50 for men)
8 focus groups
Emslie et al. 2013 [41]
n = 22
CASP 15
• Males aged between 28 and 52 years (mean 36.9 years)
• All were white and lived in the west of Scotland.
• Diverse socioeconomic backgrounds
• All drank “regularly” 9 focus groups
Forsyth et al. 2016 [42]
n = 24
CASP 13
• Entertainers currently working in Glasgow’s pubs and nightclubs (west of Scotland)
• 18 males, 6 females
• ‘DJs’ (n = 8), ‘Band-members’ (n = 8) and ‘Variety Acts’ (n = 8)
• Aged 20–49 years
• No details provided Qualitative interviews
Graber et al. 2016 [37]
n = 25
CASP 15
• Young people aged 17–25 years
• 13 females, 12 males
• Living in South East England
• 22 in full time education
• 17 moderate drinkers, 8 non-drinkers Semi-structured interviews
Herring et al. 2012
n = 52
CASP 13
• Young people aged 16–25 years
• 26 females, 26 males
• 46 students
• Vast majority living in London
• 22 current non-drinkers, 30 current light drinkers Semi-structured interviews
Jacobs et al. 2018 [34]
n = 8
CASP 16
• Female first year UK undergraduate students at the University of Lincoln (East Midlands)
• Aged 18 to 33 years (mean age 21.5 years)
• Non-drinkers (defined as someone who either has never drank alcohol, or has only consumed alcohol once in the previous year) Semi-structured interviews
MacArthur et al. 2017 [39]
n = 28
CASP 13
• Young people aged between 18 and 20 years
• 13 males, 15 females
• Participants lived in both urban and rural environments
• Living in South West England
• Half of the participants were in employment or seeking employment and half were in, or were planning to attend, tertiary education.
• 13 non-hazardous drinkers - no drinking, or drinking below safe drinking guideline amounts
• 14 hazardous drinkers - regularly consuming alcohol over the safe drinking guideline (3–4 units per day for males, 2–3 units per day for females)
• 1 harmful drinker – drinking above recommended limits, and at higher levels than most hazardous drinkers
In-depth interviews
Orford et al. 2004 [35]
n = 11 (qualitative data sub-group)
CASP 10
• Undergraduate students from a large university in the English West Midlands
• Approximately equal numbers of males and females, and of students in each of the three years of study
• No age data reported, but all assumed to be adults due to attending university in the UK (where students are 18 + yrs)
• Approximately equal numbers of ‘heavy’ and ‘light’ drinkers Semi-structured interviews
Piacentini & Banister 2006 [36]
Study 1 n = 160
Study 2 n = 8
CASP 12
Study 1
• Second year undergraduates at Lancaster University (North West England) undertaking classes in marketing
• Aged 19–22 years
• 84 females, 74 males, 2 unstated
Study 1
• Information on drinking status not requested but 4 respondents claimed to be teetotal, over three-quarters of the narratives suggested fairly heavy drinking and the remainder implied light alcohol intake
Study 1
Written narratives
Study 2
• Students at Lancaster University
• Aged 19–22 years
Study 2
• 4 regular drinkers, 4 light/non drinkers
Study 2
Interviews
  1. Note. CASP Critical Appraisal Skills Programme
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