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Table 1 General characteristics of study subjects at 2015 baseline year

From: Correlation between private education costs and parental depression in South Korea

VariablesFathers’ CESDMothers’ CESD
Total%MeanSDp-valueTotal%MeanSDp-value
Total292100.03.286.26179100.03.035.85
Proportion of private education costa
 Tertile 1 (0~16.3%/0~17.5%)9432.22.715.06.27635731.83.035.32.9999
 Tertile 2 (16.3~29.4%/17.5~29.0%)10134.63.466.18 5731.83.036.74 
 Tertile 3 (29.4%~/29.0%~)9733.23.667.33 6536.33.025.52 
EHDIb
 Tertile 1 (~198.0/~202.4)13546.24.267.84.00188446.94.117.04.0103
 Tertile 2 (198.0~278.5/202.4~283.3)7525.72.505.00 5128.51.893.88 
 Tertile 3 (278.5~/283.3~)8228.12.393.66 4424.62.274.88 
Age  45.784.20   42.833.75 
Education
 No high school education103.46.737.33.010442.23.186.36.9442
 High school academic background28296.63.166.20 17597.83.025.85 
Work
 No62.14.553.94.46626536.33.556.04.2371
 Yes28697.93.256.30 11463.72.735.74 
Residence
 Suburban299.93.014.82.7191147.82.993.81.9723
 Urban26390.13.316.41 16592.23.035.99 
Chronic disease
 None21573.62.905.97.011915184.42.304.07<.0001
 Diagnosed7726.44.346.94 2815.66.9510.68 
Child's GPA
 Low175.826.8413.94.0016105.595.648.46.1348
 Middle8328.423.426.05 4826.822.504.40 
 High19265.752.915.14 12167.603.026.09 
Child's study stress
 Tertile 1 (0~6/0~6)11539.43.236.22.10807240.21.794.35.0095
 Tertile 2 (6~8/6~9)8027.42.574.43 7139.73.645.71 
 Tertile 3 (8~12/9~12)9733.23.947.48 3620.14.298.04 
Child's K-CBCL
 Tertile 1 (0~5/0~5)10335.32.826.05.03375832.42.765.00.2330
 Tertile 2 (5~12/5~13)9432.22.824.64 6435.83.787.76 
 Tertile 3 (12~/13~)9532.54.237.68 5731.82.463.79 
RSS  22.532.46   22.482.15 
AUDIT  9.155.32   4.273.25 
Fee satisfaction  3.720.76   3.790.66 
Family satisfaction  4.861.15   4.831.14 
Child satisfaction  2.800.42   2.790.46 
  1. Abbreviations: CESD (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), EHDI (Equivalized Household Disposable Income), AUDIT (Alcohol Usage Disorder Identification Test), RSS (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), GPA (Grade Point Average), K-CBCL (Korean Child Behavior Checklist)
  2. 1Proportion of private education cost is defined as: (private education cost/equivalized household disposable income)*100
  3. 2The unit of EHDI is 10,000 which is about $8.83 at 2015
  4. In the parentheses, the first part is the father’s actual data range and the second part is the mother’s