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Table 3 Studies that report results related to implemented flavor bans

From: The actual and anticipated effects of a menthol cigarette ban: a scoping review

Author, Year Location Age group Study Design
(Theme)
Sample Size Ban Specifics (Implementation Date) Methods Main Outcomes Results
Chaiton, M. 2019 [34] Canada NA Time Series
(Sales)
NA 2009 National ban on flavored cigarettes and little cigars, except menthol Quarterly sales data from Health Canada from 2004 to 2015. Sales of cigars Post-ban, a there was a decline in flavored cigars sales after 2009 of 59 million units. Incomplete substitution with an increase of 9.6 million in non-flavored cigars.
Courte-manche, C. 2017 [35] US 11–19 Trend Analysis
(Individual Behavior)
Not Specified 2009 National ban on flavored cigarettes, except menthol National Youth Tobacco Surveys from 1993 to 2013. Controlled by age, sex, and race, tax-inclusive price indices for cigarettes and Other tobacco products (OTP). Type of tobacco product use in the past 30 days. Cigarettes, menthol cigarettes, or OTP (cigars, smokeless, pipes) or non-cigarette tobacco products Post-ban, there was a decrease of 6% in the probability use of any tobacco products. Adolescents were more likely to choose menthol cigarettes, cigars and pipes. Substitution to other tobacco products increased by 14%.
Delnevo, C. 2015 [13] US NA Trend Analysis
(Sales)
NA 2009 National ban on flavored cigarettes, except menthol Nielsen’s convenience store data on clove cigars, 2009–2012.USDA/
GATS data on imported cigars and cigarettes from 2008 to 2012. Quantity and value of cigars and cigarettes from Indonesia 2008–2012
Sales and total imports of clove cigars. Marketing Strategies. Kretek International’s development of clove cigar started in 2007 by changing only the product’s wrapper from cigarette to cigar. Kretek took advantage of the disparities between cigarette and cigars warning labels and excise tax. Clove cigars sales increased from 444,000 in 2009 to 6.7 million in 2012 (1400%). Cigars imports increase to > 626 million sticks by 2012.
Delnevo, C. 2017 [36] US NA Trend Analysis
(Sales)
NA 2009 National ban on flavored cigarettes, except menthol US Nielsen convenience store sales data from 2008 to 2015 to identify cigar’s specific brand, flavor, and packaging characteristics Sales of cigars packaging characteristics, or flavors. From 2008 to 2015, unit sales of cigars steadily increased from 994.2 million to over 1.5 billion.
More than half of cigars sold in 2015 were flavored, an 8.5% absolute change in market share.
From 2008, the number of unique flavor names doubled during this period, from 108 individual flavors to 250 by 2015.
Sales of single and 5-pack cigars fell in favor of 2–3 packs which rose from 1% in 2008 to 40% in 2015.
Jo, C. 2014 [37] US NA Pre and Post Analysis
(Compliance)
N = 200 internet cigarette vendors 2009 National ban on flavored cigarettes, except menthol Internet tobacco vendors product availability, Internet Cigarette Vendor study 2009, 2010, and 2011 Sales of flavored tobacco products Post-ban, 89% of vendors continued to sell flavored products however, the majority (67.8–82.5%) of these retailers were international. Percentage of flavored US vendors fell from 50.9% in 2019 to 28.6%. Vendors were 1.71 times more likely to sell flavored little cigars in 2010 compared to 2009; and 5.50 times more likely to sell clove cigarettes. The percentage of vendors selling clove cigarettes and cigars increased from 20.6% in 2009 to 25.5% in 2010 and then decrease to 15.5% in 2011.
Nguyen, H. 2014 [38] Canada 15–65 Trend Analysis
(Individual Behavior)
N = 46,000 observations 2010 Ban on flavored cigarillos and unflavored packs with > = 20 units 2007–2011 Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey Change in young person’s use of cigarillos and regular cigars For entire sample, 39% reported ever smoking cigarillos and 9% reported past 30-day use. Past 30-day use of cigarillos by those aged 15–24 declined from 13.7 to 9.3% (p = 0.000) for male respondents and from 5.3 to 3.3% (p = 0.001) for female respondents. Reductions in cigarillo use for the older age group were not statistically significant. Regression analysis found a 2.3 percentage point decline in past 30-day cigarillo use among young people (22% relative decline); a 4.3 percentage point increase in past 30-day abstinence. For youth, all cigar ever use declined by 2.2 percentage points (5.1% relative reduction) and by 3.1% for ever use of cigarillos (8% relative decline).