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Table 3 New episodes of specialist treatment for substance use problems by source of referral, TDI surveillance, Belgium 2016–7 (N = 16,543)

From: General practice patients starting treatment for substance use problems: observations from two data sources across levels of care

 Non-GP caregiver
n = 12,028
GP
n = 4515
Adjusted OR (95% CI) for referral by GP (versus non-GP caregiver) (n = 12,032)
 n/N%(95% CI)n/N%(95% CI)
Sex: man8489/12,01370.7 (69.8–71.5)2987/451066.2 (64.8–67.6)Removed b
Age ≥ median5659/11,99947.2 (46.3–48.1)2668/450759.2 (57.7–60.6)1.25 (1.13–1.38)
Secondary educational level or higher6840/989669,1 (68.2–70.0)3172/398179,7 (78.4–80.9)1.27 (1.15–1.41)
Recently employed2000/10,78818.5 (17.8–19.3)1394/420133.2 (31.8–34.6)1.71 (1.56–1.88)
Recent stable accommodation8846/11,73675.4 (74.6–76.2)4229/448394.3 (93.6–95.0)3.62 (3.08–4.26)
First treatment3183/11,65427.3 (26.5–28.1)1904/438543.4 (41.9–44.9)1.72 (1.57–1.87)
Type of substance use
 Street drugs minus cannabis primarily (III-b)4748/12,02839.5 (38.5–40.3)1174/451526.0 (24.7–27.3)reference
 Alcohol only (I)4827/12,02840.1 (39.3–41.0)2527/451556.0 (54.5–57.4)1.10 (0.94–1.29)
 Pharmaceuticals (and alcohol) (II)799/12,0286.6 (6.2–7.1)391/45158.7 (7.9–9.5)1.24 (1.04–1.48)
 Cannabis only/primarily (III-a)1654/12,02813.8 (13.1–14.4)423/45159.4 (8.5–10.3)0.73 (0.62–0.86)
Mono substance use7155/12,02859.5 (58.6–60.4)3272/451572.5 (71.1–73.8)1.23 (1.04–1.48)
First use of primary/only substance at ≥17 years4668/847555.1 (54.0–56.1)1896/306761.8 (60.1–63.5)a
Recent daily use of primary/only substance6372/11,30856.3 (55.4–57.3)2927/426868.6 (67.2–70.0)1.46 (1.33–1.59)
Type of treatment    a
 Outpatient treatment4022/11,92033.7 (32.9–34.6)1232/451527.3 (26.0–28.6) 
 Inpatient, non-hospital1928/11,92016.2 (15.5–16.8)136/45153.0 (2.5–3.6) 
 Psychiatric hospital2914/11,92024.4 (23.7–25.2)983/451521.8 (20.6–23.0) 
 General hospital/psychiatry3056/11,92025.6 (24.9–26.4)2164/451547.9 (46.5–49.4) 
Region of SGP
 Flemish7180/12,02859.7 (58.8–60.6)2756/451561.0 (59.6–62.5)Removed b
 Walloon3133/12,02826.0 (25.3–26.8)1362/451530.2 (28.8–31.5)
 Brussels1715/12,02814.3 (13.6–14.9)397/45158.8 (8.0–9.7)
  1. Non-overlapping confidence intervals are in bold
  2. a First use of primary substance was not included in the multivariable logistic model because of the low number of valid data and its high association with the type of substance use. Type of treatment was not included in the multivariable logistic model as it is not a socio-demographic patient characteristic or a substance use characteristic
  3. b Variable was removed because it did not significantly improved the fit of the model