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Table 3 Univariate and multivariatea logistic regression analysis of hearing loss and PTSD (n = 1179)

From: Co-occurrence of hearing loss and posttraumatic stress disorder among injured military personnel: a retrospective study

Variable PTSD
Univariate Multivariate
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Hearing loss
 None Ref Ref
 Unilateral 1.61 (0.93–2.81) 1.23 (0.69–2.17)
 Bilateral 4.11 (2.13–7.93)b 2.92 (1.47–5.81)b
Age, years   NS
 18–25 Ref  
 26 and older 0.70 (0.42–1.17)  
Year of injury   NS
 2004–2006 Ref  
 2007–2012 1.57 (1.08–2.29)b  
Occupation   NS
 Non-infantry Ref  
 Infantry 2.47 (1.66–3.67)b  
Battle injury   
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 7.07 (4.27–11.69)b 6.64 (4.00–11.03)b
Blast injury   NS
 No Ref  
 Yes 4.66 (3.07–7.07)b  
 1–8 Ref  
 9 and greater 2.86 (1.55–5.26)b  
Concussion   NS
 No Ref  
 Yes 2.86 (1.96–4.19)b  
  1. CI confidence interval, ISS Injury Severity Score, NS not selected, OR odds ratio, PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder, Ref reference level
  2. aMultivariate model employed backward selection and was indicated as a good fit by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (p > 0.10)
  3. bp < 0.01