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Table 2 Demographic characteristics of men and women related to unemployment, employment, permanent work disability, family leaves and education during five-year follow-up at 25 to 29 years, and latent class clusters and multisite musculoskeletal pain at 16 years

From: Accumulated unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems in adolescence are associated with labor market exclusion in early adulthood – a northern Finland birth cohort 1986 study

 MEN
N (%)
WOMEN
N (%)
P value
(x2)
Unemployment*  < 0.001
 No unemployment1810 (55)1830 (50) 
 Under one year799 (24)999 (28) 
 1 to 2 years299 (9)400 (11) 
 2 to 3 years186 (6)241 (7) 
 3 to 4 years131 (4)111 (3) 
 4 to 5 years81 (2)45 (1) 
Employment*  < 0.001
 No employment151 (5)201 (6) 
 Under one year204 (6)298 (8) 
 1 to 2 years208 (6)352 (10) 
 2 to 3 years248 (8)441 (12) 
 3 to 4 years423 (13)523 (14) 
 4 to 5 years2072 (62)1811 (50) 
Family leaves*  < 0.001
 Yes902 (27)1757 (48) 
 No2404 (73)1869 (52) 
Permanent work disability  0.532
 Yes37 (1)35 (1) 
 No3306 (99)3626 (99) 
Highest education  < 0.001
 Compulsory260 (8)146 (4) 
 Secondary1862 (56)1607 (44) 
 Tertiary1221 (37)1908 (52) 
Socioeconomic status of childhood family**  0.730
 Higher clerical employees242 (7)240 (7) 
 Self-employed575 (17)630 (17) 
 Lower clerical employees501 (15)539 (15) 
 Workers1333 (40)1459 (40) 
 Students, pensioners, unemployed or unknown692 (21)793 (22) 
MMSP at 16**  < 0.001
 No pain or one pain-site1862 (57)1300 (36) 
 Two or more pain sites1392 (43)2296 (64) 
Clusters**  < 0.001
 Cluster 1472 (14)540 (15) 
 Cluster 2886 (27)425 (12) 
 Cluster 3258 (8)239 (7) 
 Cluster 41686 (51)2386 (66) 
  1. *those with disability days are not included
  2. **questionnaire-based information
  3. MMSP = multisite musculoskeletal pain