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Table 2 Definitions and measures

From: Establishing the efficacy of interventions to improve health literacy and health behaviours: a systematic review

1st author, year Definition Measure Subjective /Objective Culture specific Condition specific
[30] Calderon, 2014 American Medical Association, 1999 [53], Ratzan and Parker, 2000 [54], World HealthOrganisation, 1998 [55] Diabetes Health Literacy Scale [30] Subjective  
[50] Fiedler, 2019 Sorensen, 2012 [6] German Health Literacy Questionnaire [56] Subjective  
[32] Gharachourlo, 2018 Berkman, 2010 [57] Iranian Health Literacy Questionnaire [58] Subjective  
[39] Han, 2017 Ratzan and Parker, 2000 [54] Assessment of Health Literacy in Cancer Screening [59] Objective  
[44] Liu, 2018 Mark, 2009 [60] Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire [61] Subjective  
[42] Mas, 2017 None STOFHLA [62] Objective   
[45, 46] Mas, 2018 (and 2015) None TOFHLA [63] Objective   
[38] Li, 2016 Baker, 2006 [64] Malaria Health Literacy Questionnaire [38] Unclear  
[40] Otilingam, 2015 None NVS [65] Objective   
[47] Panahi, 2018 None Health Literacy for Iranian Adults [66] Subjective  
[43] Parekh, 2017 None NVS [65] Objective   
[31] Tai, 2016 Unclear STOFHLA [62] Objective   
[48] Tsai, 2018 Kimbrough, 2007 [67], Nutbeam, 2008 [2], Sorensen, 2012 [6] Bespoke Subjective   
[49] Uemura, 2018 Sorensen, 2012 [6] HLS-EU-Q16 [68] and HLS-14 [69] Subjective   
[41] Zhuang, 2016 American Medical Association [53] Rapid Assessment of Health Literacy [41] Objective   
[35] Banbury, 2019 Australian Bureau of statistics, 2006 [70] Berkman et al., 2011 [11] Ratzan and Parker, 2000 [54] Health Literacy Questionnaire [71] Subjective   
[36] Handa, 2020 None HLS-14 [69] Subjective   
[37] Kim, 2020 Ratzan and Parker, 2000 [54] REALM, DM-REALM, TOFHLA, NVS [37, 63, 65, 72] Objective   √ (DM-REALM)
[33] Knudsen, 2019 Sorensen, 2012 [6] Health Literacy Questionnaire [71] Subjective   
[51] McCaffery, 2019 Ratzan and Parker, 2000 [54] Health Literacy Questionnaire [71] Subjective   
[34] Tavakoly Sany, 2019 Unclear TOFHLA [63] Objective   
[52] Smith, 2019 Nutbeam, 2000 [2] Health Literacy Questionnaire [71] Subjective