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Table 6 Summary of policies related to prevention of corruption in the LMICs of south and south-east Asian countries

From: The influence of corruption and governance in the delivery of frontline health care services in the public sector: a scoping review of current and future prospects in low and middle-income countries of south and south-east Asia

Country, year (Ref) Name of policy Key feature
Bangladesh, 2008 [61] Right to Information Act • Every citizen of Bangladesh shall have the right to information from the authority, and the authority shall, on demand from a citizen, be bound to provide him with the information.
• Every authority shall prepare catalogue and index of all information and preserve it in an appropriate manner.
India, 2005 [62] • An Indian citizen can apply for and obtain information held by any public authority, subject to certain defined exceptions in respect of national interest, legislative privilege and right to privacy.
Nepal, 2007 [63] • Every citizen of Nepal shall have access to the information held in the public bodies.
Protection of whistleblower: It shall be a responsibility of an employee of a public body to provide information on any ongoing or probable corruption or irregularities or any deed taken as offence under the prevailing laws.
• The whistleblower shall not be terminated from his/her post or punished with any legal responsibility or caused any loss or harm for giving information.
Sri Lanka, 2016 [64] • An act to provide for the right of access to information; to specify grounds on which access may be denied; to establish the right to information commission; to appoint information officers; to set out the procedure and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
Bangladesh, 2011 [65] The Whistle Blower Protection Act • If any whistleblower discloses any authentic information, his identity cannot not be divulged without his consent.
• For making disclosure of public interest information, no criminal or civil, or departmental suit can be filed against the whistleblower.
• If the whistleblower is a service holder, only for disclosing public interest information- demotion, harassment transfer or forced retirement or any other measures cannot be taken against him that would incur loss of his psychological, financial or social standing or no departmental actions can be taken against him or he cannot be treated discriminatorily.
India, 2014 [66] • Establish a mechanism to safeguard persons who make a complaint regarding an act of corruption
India, 2013 [67] Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act • Lokpal and Lokayuktas bodies have been empowered to investigate allegations of corruption against public functionaries.
• The jurisdiction of the Lokpal (Ombudsman) includes the prime minister, ministers, members of parliament and other public servants.
India, 2013 [68] Prevention of Corruption (amendment) Bill • The Amendment Bill include the offense of passive bribery, its various aspects including solicitation and acceptance of bribe through intermediaries (private persons).