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Table 3 Interventions with a Four Star Quality Rating and Statistical Analyses That Reported Using “Opportunity”

From: Identifying contexts and mechanisms in multiple behavior change interventions affecting smoking cessation success: a rapid realist review

Mechanism a Total number of interventions using the C-M-O Number of interventions using the C-M-O that report improvement in smoking cessation outcome
CONTEXT
NORTH AMERICA
Opportunity 11 [51, 61, 63, 82, 83, 96, 103, 105, 119, 120, 126] 8 (73%) [51, 61, 63, 82, 83, 96, 103, 105]
Opportunity – Access 7 [61, 63, 82, 83, 96, 103, 119] 6 (86%) [61, 63, 82, 83, 96, 103]
Opportunity – Changing Physical and/or Social Environment 6 [61, 83, 96, 103, 105, 120] 5 (83%) [61, 83, 96, 103, 105]
Opportunity – Social Support 6 [51, 82, 96, 103, 105, 119] 5 (83%) [51, 82, 96, 103, 105]
ASIA
Opportunity – Social Support 3 [65, 75, 125] 2 (67%) [65, 75]
CLINICAL SETTING
Opportunity – Access 3 [61, 82, 95] 3 (100%) [61, 82, 95]
COMMUNITY BASED CARE
Opportunity 5 [40, 61, 63, 92, 119] 4 (80%) [40, 61, 63, 92]
Opportunity – Access 4 [61, 63, 92, 119] 3 (75%) [61, 63, 92]
WORKPLACE
Opportunity – Access 3 [96, 103, 121] 2 (67%) [96, 103]
Opportunity – Social Support 3 [96, 103, 105] 3 (100%) [96, 103, 105]
SCHOOLS
Opportunity 4 [40, 56, 71, 83] 4 (100%) [40, 56, 71, 83]
Opportunity – Changing Physical and/or Social Environment 4 [40, 56, 71, 83] 4 (100%) [40, 56, 71, 83]
TARGET POPULATION
PRIMARY PREVENTION
Opportunity 20 [40, 54,55,56, 61, 63, 71, 82, 83, 96, 101, 103, 105, 115, 117, 118, 120, 121, 124, 127] 13 (65%) [40, 54,55,56, 61, 63, 71, 82, 83, 96, 101, 103, 105]
Opportunity – Access 8 [56, 61, 63, 82, 83, 96, 103, 121] 7 (88%) [56, 61, 63, 82, 83, 96, 103]
Opportunity - Changing Physical and/or Social Environment 11 [40, 56, 61, 71, 83, 96, 103, 105, 118, 120, 121] 8 (73%) [40, 56, 61, 71, 83, 96, 103, 105]
Opportunity – Social Support 9 [54, 55, 82, 96, 101, 103, 105, 124, 127] 7 (78%) [54, 55, 82, 96, 101, 103, 105]
SECONDARY PREVENTION
Opportunity – Access 4 [49, 92, 95, 119] 3 (75%) [49, 92, 95]
TYPE OF MODIFIABLE RISK BEHAVIOUR INTERVENTION ADDRESSEDb
ALCOHOL
Opportunity 13 [49, 51, 75, 82, 83, 101, 103, 105, 115, 117,118,119, 122] 8 (62%) [49, 51, 75, 82, 83, 101, 103, 105]
Opportunity – Access 5 [49, 82, 83, 103, 119] 4 (80%) [49, 82, 83, 103]
Opportunity – Changing Physical and/or Social Environment 4 [83, 103, 105, 118] 3 (75%) [83, 103, 105]
Opportunity – Social Support 7 [51, 75, 82, 101, 103, 105, 119] 6 (86%) [51, 75, 82, 101, 103, 105]
DIET
Opportunity – Access 11 [56, 61, 63, 82, 83, 92, 95, 96, 103, 119, 121] 9 (82%) [56, 61, 63, 82, 83, 92, 95, 96, 103]
Opportunity – Changing Physical and/or Social Environment 11 [40, 56, 61, 71, 83, 96, 103, 105, 118, 120, 121] 8 (73%) [40, 56, 61, 71, 83, 96, 103, 105]
Opportunity – Social Support 14 [54, 55, 65, 75, 82, 96, 101, 103, 105, 119, 123,124,125, 127] 9 (64%) [54, 55, 65, 75, 82, 96, 101, 103, 105]
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Opportunity – Access 12 [49, 56, 61, 63, 82, 83, 92, 95, 96, 103, 119, 121] 10 (83%) [49, 56, 61, 63, 82, 83, 92, 95, 96, 103]
Opportunity – Changing Physical and/or Social Environment 11 [40, 56, 61, 71, 83, 96, 103, 105, 118, 120, 121] 8 (73%) [40, 56, 61, 71, 83, 96, 103, 105]
Opportunity – Social Support 15 [51, 54, 55, 65, 75, 82, 96, 101, 103, 105, 119, 123,124,125, 127] 10 (67%) [51, 54, 55, 65, 75, 82, 96, 101, 103, 105]
STRESS
Opportunity 10 [40, 92, 95, 96, 101, 103, 105, 118, 119, 126] 7 (70%) [40, 92, 95, 96, 101, 103, 105]
Opportunity – Access 5 [92, 95, 96, 103, 119] 4 (80%) [92, 95, 96, 103]
Opportunity – Changing Physical and/or Social Environment 5 [40, 96, 103, 105, 118] 4 (80%) [40, 96, 103, 105]
Opportunity – Social Support 5 [96, 101, 103, 105, 119] 4 (80%) [96, 101, 103, 105]
NUMBER OF MODIFIABLE RISK BEHAVIOURS
3 BEHAVIOURS
Opportunity – Access 5 [49, 56, 61, 63, 121] 4 (80%) [49, 56, 61, 63]
Opportunity – Changing Physical and/or Social Environment 5 [56, 61, 71, 120, 121] 3 (60%) [56, 61, 71]
4 BEHAVIOURS
Opportunity 11 [40, 75, 82, 83, 92, 95, 96, 115, 117, 122, 126] 7 (64%) [40, 75, 82, 83, 92, 95, 96]
Opportunity – Access 5 [82, 83, 92, 95, 96] 5 (100%) [82, 83, 92, 95, 96]
Opportunity – Changing Physical and/or Social Environment 3 [40, 83, 96] 3 (100%) [40, 83, 96]
Opportunity – Social Support 3 [75, 82, 96] 3 (100%) [75, 82, 96]
5 BEHAVIOURS
Opportunity – Social Support 3 [101, 103, 119] 2 (67%) [101, 103]
  1. a The mechanisms within these interventions may not be exclusively for addressing smoking behaviour. It could be part of the overall intervention or for other risk behaviours within that intervention
  2. b This category examines interventions that include the specific risk behaviour (i.e. alcohol) as one of the targeted behaviours