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Table 2 Characteristics of Interventions with Statistically Significant Smoking Cessation Outcomesa

From: Identifying contexts and mechanisms in multiple behavior change interventions affecting smoking cessation success: a rapid realist review

Article Location Context - Setting Target population Type of prevention Activities used in intervention Mechanisms used in intervention
3 Behaviour Changes Targeted – ALCOHOL, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SMOKING
 Wang et al., 2015 [47] Asia Community Setting
Rural Region
Adults with metabolic syndrome Secondary Education
Group Interactions
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Mastrangelo et al., 2015 [48] Europe Workplace Intervention Adult/elderly male employees Primary and Secondary Counselling
Education
Capability
Motivation
 Jelinek et al., 2014 [49] Australasia Low Socio-Economic Status Adult/elderly cardiovascular patients Secondary Counselling
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Opportunity
 Saltychev et al., 2012 [50] Europe Clinical Setting
Workplace Intervention
Adult employees Primary Group Interactions Capability
Motivation
 Kim et al., 2016 [51] North America N/A Adult/elderly cardiovascular patients Secondary Education
Social Support
Capability
Opportunity
3 Behaviour Changes Targeted – ALCOHOL, DIET, SMOKING
 Lopez et al., 2007 [52] Europe Clinical Setting Adult patients attending primary care centers who have a first or second-degree relative affected by cancer. Primary Counselling
Education
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
3 Behaviour Changes Targeted – ALCOHOL, SMOKING, STRESS
 Laaksonen et al., 2013 [53] Europe Clinical Setting Adults Secondary Education
Incentives
Tailored Feedback
Pharmacolo-gical Support
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
3 Behaviours Changes Targeted – DIET, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SMOKING
 Gomez-Pardo et al., 2016 [54] Europe N/A Adults with at least 1 cardiovascular risk factor Primary Community Organization
Education
Group Interactions
Social Support
Capability
Opportunity
 Ofori et al., 2015 [55] Europe Clinical Setting Adult/elderly cardiovascular patients Primary and Secondary Counselling
Education
Group Interactions
Motivational Interviewing
Pharmacolo-gical Support
Social support
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Saraf et al., 2015 [56] Asia Rural Region
School Intervention
Adolescent students Primary Community Organization
Education
Incentives
Social Support
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Eckman et al., 2012 [57] North America Clinical Setting Adult/elderly cardiovascular patients Secondary Education Capability
 Ruffin et al., 2011 [58] North America Clinical Setting Adults in the general public Primary Tailored Feedback Motivation
 O’Brien et al., 2010 [59] North America Community Setting
School Intervention
Adolescent students Primary Community Organization
Counselling
Education
Capability
Opportunity
 Wendel-Vos et al., 2009 [60] Europe Community Setting
Low Socio-Economic Status
Adults in the general public Primary Education
Group Interactions
Mass Media Campaigns
Capability
Opportunity
 Plescia et al., 2008 [61] North America Clinical Setting
Community Setting
Adult/elderly urban, African American community. Primary Community Organization
Education
Group Interaction
Mass Media Campaigns
Capability
Opportunity
 Schumacher et al., 2006 [62] Europe Clinical Setting Adult/elderly cardiovascular patients Secondary Counselling
Education
Group Interactions
Capability
Opportunity
 Becker et al., 2005 [63] North America Community Setting African American adult siblings of individuals hospitalized for coronary heart disease Primary Counseling
Incentives
Pharmacolo-gical Support
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Friesen et al., 2010 [64] North America Community Setting
School Intervention
Workplace Intervention
Rural Region
Adults/elderly from general public Primary Community Organization
Education
Group Interactions
Mass Media Campaigns
Capability
Opportunity
 Shalaeva et al., 2017 [65] Asia Clinical Setting Adult/elderly type 2 diabetes patients having undergone trans-femoral amputation (TFA) Secondary Education
Incentives
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Opportunity
 Monteagudo et al., 2013 [66] Europe Clinical Setting Adult/elderly patients with COPD Secondary Counselling
Education
Motivational Interviewing
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Arikan et al., 2011 [67] Asia Rural Region Adults from general public Primary Education
Tailored Feedback
Capability
 Richardson et al., 2008 [68] Europe Community Setting Adults from general public Primary Education
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Opportunity
 Naser et al., 2008 [69] Asia Clinical Setting Adult cardiovascular patients Secondary Counselling
Education
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
 Smith et al., 2007 [70] Europe Clinical Setting Adults with severe mental illness Secondary Education
Group Interactions
Capability
Opportunity
 Dendana et al., 2017 [71] Africa School Intervention Adolescent students Primary Education
Group Interaction
Opinion Leaders
Capability
Opportunity
 Gamble et al., 2012 [72] North America Clinical Setting
Community Setting
Adult/elderly high-risk type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension and/or albuminuria Tertiary Tailored Feedback Capability
 Sadeghi et al., 2011 [73] Asia Community Setting Adult/elderly females from general public Primary Education
Mass Media Campaign
Capability
Opportunity
 Lando et al., 1995 [74] North America Community Setting
Workplace Intervention
Adult/elderly from general public Primary Community Organization
Education
Mass Media Campaign
Social Support
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Farquhar et al., 1990 [41] North America Community Setting
School Intervention
Adults from general public Primary Education
Incentives
Capability
Motivation
3 Behaviours Changes Targeted – PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SMOKING, STRESS
 Baker et al., 2015 [12] Europe Clinical Setting Adult/elderly cardiovascular patients Secondary Prevention Counselling Capability
4 Behaviours Changes Targeted – ALCOHOL, DIET, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SMOKING
 Xavier et al., 2016 [75] Asia Clinical Setting Adult/elderly cardiovascular patients Secondary Counselling
Education
Capability
Opportunity
 Shin et al., 2015 [76] Asia N/A Patients with diabetes Secondary Education Capability
 Van Den Wijngaart et al., 2015 [77] Europe Clinical Setting Adult/elderly cardiovascular patients Secondary Motivational Interviewing
Tailored Feedback
Motivation
 Schulz et al., 2014 [78] Europe N/A Adults from general public Primary Education
Tailored feedback
Capability
Motivation
 Busch et al., 2013 [79] Europe School Intervention Adolescent students Primary Education
Group Interactions
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Fernald et al., 2012 [80] North America Clinical Settings Adults from general public Primary Community Organization
Counselling
Education
Capability
Opportunity
 Tobari et al., 2010 [81] Asia Clinical Settings
Community Settings
Adults/elderly cardiovascular patients Secondary Counselling
Education
Tailored Feedback
Capability
 Holtrop et al., 2008 [82] North America Clinical Setting Adults from general public Primary Counselling
Education
Motivational Interviewing
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Frank et al., 2007 [83] North America School Intervention Adult students Primary Counselling
Education
Capability
Opportunity
 Cox et al., 2005 [84] North America Clinical Setting Adult cancer patients Tertiary Counselling
Education
Capability
Motivation
 Wills et al., 2017 [85] Europe School Intervention Adult students Primary Education Capability
 Dale et al., 2016 [86] Europe School Intervention Disadvantaged adults/adoles-cents Primary Counselling
Group Interactions
Motivational Interviewing
Social Support
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
 Zhou et al., 2010 [87] Asia Rural Region Rural Chinese, Asian/Pacific Islander adult/elderly Primary and Secondary Counselling
Motivational Interviewing
Social Support
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Kadda et al., 2016 [88] Europe Clinical Setting Adult/elderly cardiovascular patients Tertiary Counselling
Education
Social Support
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Chander et al., 2013 [89] Asia Clinical Setting
Low Socio-Economic Status
Adult/elderly cardiovascular patients with diabetes Secondary Counselling
Education
Group Interactions
Capability
 Schilling et al., 2005 [90] Europe Workplace Intervention Adult employees Primary Education
Tailored Feedback
Capability
4 Behaviours Changes Targeted – DIET, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SMOKING, STRESS
 Park et al., 2015 [91] Asia N/A Asian/Pacific Islanders adult/elderly cardiovascular patients Secondary Counselling
Education
Incentives
Social Support
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Gibson et al., 2014 [92] Europe Community Setting Adults with diabetes and 2 other risk factors (smoking, hypertension or dyslipidaemia) Secondary Education
Group Interaction
Motivational Interviewing
Social Support
Tailored Feedback
Pharmacolo-gical Support
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Siddiqui et al., 2012 [93] Europe Workplace Intervention Adult employees Primary Counselling
Incentives
Motivational Interviewing
Capability
Opportunity
 Clouse et al., 2012 [94] North America Community Setting
Prison/Jail
Adult incarcerated males (residents of a correctional substance abuse program) Primary Community Organization
Education
Group Interactions
Opinion Leaders
Mass Media Campaigns
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Jolly et al., 2007 [95] Europe Clinical Setting
Low Socio-Economic Status
Adult/elderly cardiovascular patients Secondary Counselling
Education
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Long et al., 2010 [96] North America Workplace Intervention Adult employees Primary Counselling
Education
Group Interactions
Incentives
Pharmacolo-gical Support
Opinion Leaders
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Niederhauser et al., 2005 [97] North America Community Setting ` Active duty infantry soldiers and their spouses Primary Community Organization
Counselling
Education
Incentives
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 White et al., 2015 [98] North America Workplace Intervention Adult employees Primary Counselling
Education
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
 Chaves et al., 2015 [99] Central America/South America/Caribbean Clinical Setting Adult/elderly from general public Primary and Secondary Counselling
Education
Social Support
Capability
 Kelishadi et al., 2011 [100] Asia Clinical setting
Community Setting
School Intervention
Adults from general public Primary and Secondary Community Organization
Education
Mass Media Campaigns
Opinion Leaders
Capability
Opportunity
 Puska et al., 1985 [40] Europe Clinical Setting
Community Setting
School Intervention
Adults from general public Primary Community Organization
Education
Mass Media Campaigns
Opinion Leaders
Social Support
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
5 Behaviours Changes Targeted– ALCOHOL, DIET, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SMOKING, STRESS
 Baker et al., 2009 [101] Australasia N/A Adult smokers with non-acute psychiatric disorders Primary Counselling
Education
Incentives
Motivational Interviewing
Pharmacolo-gical Support
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Byrne et al., 2011 [102] North America Workplace Intervention Adult/elderly employees Primary Community Organization
Counselling
Education
Group Interactions
Incentives
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Henke et al., 2011 [103] North America Workplace Intervention Adult employees Primary Community Organization
Incentives
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
 Goetzel et al., 2014 [104] North America Workplace Intervention Adult employees Primary Community Organization
Counselling
Education
Tailored Feedback
Capability
Motivation
6 Behaviours Changes Targeted – ALCOHOL, DIET, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SLEEP, SMOKING, STRESS
 Kuehl et al., 2016 [105] North America Workplace Intervention Adult employees Primary Education
Group Interactions
Social Support
Capability
Motivation
Opportunity
  1. aN/A stands for not available. There was no information available from the article for the specific category