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Table 2 The comparison on general symptoms and nervous, respiratory and circulatory complications between survivors and fatal cases

From: Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) among children: a 6-year population-based study

  Fatal cases
N2 = 44
Survivors
N1 = 415
Total
N = 459
OR(95%CI)
Fever 42 (95.5) 396 (95.4) 438 (95.4) 1.01 (0.23–4.48)
Hyperpyrexia(T > 39 °C) 9 (20.5) 102 (24.6) 111 (24.0) 0.79 (0.37–1.70)
Fever≥3 days 32 (72.7) 224 (54.0) 286 (62.3) 2.27 (1.14–4.54)*
Rash 36 (81.8) 373 (90.0) 409 (89.1) 0.51 (0.22–1.16)
Rash≥3 days 16 (36.4) 221 (53.3) 237 (51.6) 0.50 (0.26–0.96)*
Herpes in the oral cavity 22 (50.0) 291 (70.1) 313 (68.2) 0.43 (0.23–0.80)*
Herpes on cheek 5 (11.4) 152 (36.6) 157 (34.2) 0.22 (0.09–0.58)*
Herpes on fauces 14 (31.8) 126 (30.4) 140 (30.5) 1.07 (0.55–2.09)
Nervous complications
 Consciousness Disorders 22 (50.0) 45 67 8.22 (4.22–16.02)**
 Lethargy 33 (75.0) 307 340 1.06 (0.52–2.16)
 Abnormal pupillary light reflex 11 (25.0) 22 33 5.96 (2.66–13.34)**
 Panic 26 270 296 0.78 (0.41–1.46)
 Vomiting 23 105 128 3.23 (1.72–6.08)**
 Convulsion 13 90 51 1.51 (0.76–3.01)
 General weakness 10 50 60 2.51 (1.22–5.16)*
 Dysphoria 9 64 73 1.41 (0.65–3.08)
 Shake of hand or foot 19 212 231 0.73 (0.39–1.36)
Respiratory complications
 Persistent cough 16 90 106 2.63 (1.07–3.98)*
 Polypnea 9 55 64 1.68 (0.77–3.69)
 Tachypnea 14 30 42 5.99 (2.87–12.49)**
 Moist rales 19 40 59 7.13 (3.61–14.06)**
 White frothy sputum 4 10 14 4.05 (1.22–13.50)*
 Pink frothy sputum 19 14 33 21.77 (9.78–48.44)**
 Cyanosis (lips) 34 87 121 12.82 (6.09–26.96)**
 Cyanosis (the whole body) 13 28 41 5.80 (2.73–13.30)**
Circulatory complications
 Tachycardia 25 (56.8) 158 (38.1) 183 2.14 (1.14–4.01)*
 Arrhythmia 13 (29.5) 25 (6.0) 38 6.54 (3.05–14.04)**
 Cold limbs 17 (38.6) 42 (10.1) 59 5.59 (2.82–11.10)**
 Pale complexion 18 (40.9) 48 (11.6) 66 5.29 (2.70–10.37)**
 Weakened pulse 14 (31.8) 23 (5.5) 37 7.95 (3.72–14.03)**
  1. Note: OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval. *P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01