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Table 3 Modification of the Effect of Household Wealth on Overweight by Educational Attainment in 22 SSA Countries

From: Is the positive association between middle-income and rich household wealth and adult sub-Saharan African women’s overweight status modified by the level of education attainment? A cross-sectional study of 22 countries

  PoorestMiddleRichOR (95% CI) for middle-income household wealth tertileOR (95% CI) for rich household wealth tertileAnCred for middle tertileAnCred for rich tertitle
CountryEducational AttainmentOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)Scepticism/Advocacy limit (OR)Intrinsically credible if no prior evidenceScepticism/Advocacy limit (OR)Intrinsically credible if no prior evidence
Low- Income Countries
1. Benin 2011–12None/Primary1.001.65 (1.44–1.89)2.74 (2.34–3.21)1.65 (1.44–1.89)2.74 (2.34–3.21)    
 Secondary/Higher1.34 (0.77–2.33)1.42 (1.07–1.90)2.39 (1.98–2.89)1.06 (0.58–1.95)1.78 (1.02–3.11)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.64 (0.35–1.17)0.65 (0.37–1.15)AL = 0.02noAL = 0.02no
2. Chad 2014–15None/Primary1.001.04 (0.80–1.36)1.63 (1.25–2.12)1.04 (0.80–1.36)1.63 (1.25–2.12)    
 Secondary/Higher1.89 (0.98–3.64)1.85 (0.99–3.49)2.22 (1.59–3.10)0.98 (0.42–2.26)1.17 (0.62–2.24)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.94 (0.40–2.21)0.72 (0.37–1.42)AL = 0.78noAL = 0.19no
3. Comoros 2012None/Primary1.001.37 (1.08–1.75)1.76 (1.30–2.37)1.37 (1.08–1.75)1.76 (1.30–2.37)    
 Secondary/Higher0.68 (0.47–0.99)1.41 (1.07–1.86)1.45 (1.11–1.90)2.07 (1.42–3.02)2.13 (1.51–3.02)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)1.51 (0.98–2.32)1.22 (0.76–1.93)AL > 1000noAL = 2.5no
4. Congo DRC 2013–14None/Primary1.001.12 (0.84–1.49)3.01 (2.16–4.18)1.12 (0.84–1.49)3.01 (2.16–4.18)    
 Secondary/Higher0.79 (0.48–1.32)1.36 (0.92–2.03)4.59 (3.37–6.25)1.72 (0.96–3.07)5.77 (3.35–9.95)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)1.53 (0.80–2.93)1.92 (1.08–3.40)AL = 19.93noSL = 2.9yes
5. Gambia 2013None/Primary1.001.32 (0.99–1.74)1.86 (1.29–2.69)1.32 (0.99–1.74)1.86 (1.29–2.69)    
 Secondary/Higher0.99 (0.64–1.55)1.61 (1.10–2.37)1.99 (1.38–2.89)1.62 (0.98–2.67)2.01 (1.31–3.07)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)1.23 (0.71–2.15)1.08 (0.65–1.79)AL = 2.69yesnone availableyes
6. LiberiaNone/Primary1.001.18 (0.92–1.53)3.22 (2.11–4.92)1.18 (0.92–1.53)3.22 (2.11–4.92)    
 Secondary/Higher1.29 (0.71–2.35)1.47 (0.97–2.25)2.85 (1.64–4.95)1.14 (0.61–2.11)2.85 (1.64–4.95)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.96 (0.51–1.83)0.89 (0.46–1.72)AL = 0.87noAL = 0.62no
7. MalawiNone/Primary1.001.37 (1.13–1.67)2.94 (2.35–3.67)1.37 (1.13–1.67)2.94 (2.35–3.67)   z
 Secondary/Higher1.06 (0.63–1.78)1.76 (1.29–2.38)3.28 (2.57–4.20)1.66 (0.91–3.05)3.11 (1.96–4.92)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)1.21 (0.64–2.30)1.06 (0.64–1.75)none availableyesnone availableyes
8. RwandaNone/Primary1.001.39 (1.16–1.66)3.02 (2.47–3.68)1.39 (1.16–1.66)3.02 (2.47–3.68)    
 Secondary/Higher1.21 (0.66–2.23)1.85 (1.30–2.63)3.53 (2.87–4.35)1.53 (0.79–2.97)2.92 (1.58–5.40)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)1.10 (0.56–2.16)0.97 (0.51–1.83)none availableyesAL = 0.87no
9. Sierra Leone 2013None/Primary1.001.36 (1.07–1.71)2.67 (1.99–3.60)1.36 (1.07–1.71)2.67 (1.99–3.60)    
 Secondary/Higher1.23 (0.74–2.06)1.57 (1.07–2.30)2.49 (1.79–3.47)1.27 (0.71–2.28)2.02 (1.20–3.42)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.94 (0.50–1.77)0.76 (0.45–1.27)AL = 0.78noAL = 0.21no
10. Tanzania 2015–16None/Primary1.002.13 (1.82–2.50)5.46 (1.82–2.50)2.13 (1.82–2.50)5.46 (4.29–6.95)    
 Secondary/Higher1.67 (1.04–2.67)2.68 (2.04–3.52)6.00 (4.78–7.53)1.61 (0.95–2.72)3.60 (2.19–5.89)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.75 (0.44–1.30)0.66 (0.40–1.08)AL = 0.22noAL = 0.003no
11. Togo 2013–14None/Primary1.001.70 (1.25–2.30)3.84 (2.42–6.09)1.70 (1.25–2.30)3.84 (2.42–6.09)    
 Secondary/Higher1.24 (0.72–2.15)1.93 (1.29–2.87)4.00 (2.54–6.30)1.55 (0.82–2.93)3.22 (1.73–6.01)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.91 (0.49–1.70)0.84 (0.47–1.50)AL = 0.69noAL = 0.46no
12. Zimbabwe 2015None/Primary1.002.13 (1.69–2.68)3.52 (2.34–5.29)2.13 (1.69–2.68)3.52 (2.34–5.29)    
 Secondary/Higher1.37 (1.14–1.65)2.56 (2.07–3.16)4.18 (3.24–5.40)1.87 (1.53–2.28)3.05 (2.37–3.94)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.88 (0.67–1.16)0.87 (0.58–1.31)AL = 0.53noAL = 0.54no
Lower-Middle Income Countries
13. Cameroon 2011None/Primary1.002.03 (1.58–2.60)3.80 (2.80–5.17)2.03 (1.58–2.60)3.80 (2.80–5.17)    
 Secondary/Higher1.58 (1.09–2.29)2.22 (1.59–3.11)3.76 (2.90–4.89)1.41 (0.97–2.05)2.38 (1.64–3.47)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.69 (0.48–1.00)0.63 (0.40–0.98)AL < 0.01noSL = 0.23no
14. Congo 2011–12No/Primary Education1.001.60 (1.12–2.28)3.15 (2.05–4.84)1.60 (1.12–2.28)3.15 (2.05–4.84)    
 Secondary/Higher1.53 (1.08–2.17)1.85 (1.29–2.66)4.25 (3.04–5.95)1.21 (0.79–1.85)2.78 (1.89–4.09)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.76 (0.44–1.32)0.88 (0.54–1.44)AL = 0.24noAl = 0.58no
15. Ghana 2014None/Primary1.002.69 (1.95–3.73)7.10 (4.60–11.0)2.69 (1.95–3.73)7.10 (4.60–11.0)    
 Secondary/Higher1.42 (0.93–2.18)3.31 (2.33–4.69)7.74 (5.41–11.08)2.33 (1.66–3.27)5.45 (3.80–7.81)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.86 (0.55–1.35)0.77 (0.45–1.30)AL = 0.51noAL = 0.24no
16. Kenya 2014None/Primary1.001.98 (1.72–2.28)4.16 (3.46–5.01)1.98 (1.72–2.28)4.16 (3.46–5.01)    
 Secondary/Higher1.28 (0.98–1.66)2.00 (1.68–2.37)4.13 (3.49–4.89)1.56 (1.18–2.07)3.24 (2.49–4.21)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.79 (0.58–1.07)0.77 (0.59–1.02)AL = 0.09noAL < 0.01no
17. LesothoNone/Primary1.001.98 (1.51–2.60)2.90 (1.93–4.36)1.98 (1.51–2.60)2.90 (1.93–4.36)    
 Secondary/Higher1.46 (1.08–1.99)2.79 (2.18–3.57)3.81 (2.88–5.03)1.91 (1.39–2.62)2.60 (1.80–3.77)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.96 (0.63–1.48)0.90 (0.56–1.44)AL = 0.89noAL = 0.64no
18. NigeriaNone/Primary1.002.28 (1.97–2.66)4.50 (3.75–5.40)2.28 (1.97–2.66)4.50 (3.75–5.40)    
 Secondary/Higher2.01 (1.57–2.58)3.20 (2.75–3.72)6.15 (5.28–7.15)1.59 (1.25–2.03)3.06 (2.40–3.91)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.70 (0.53–0.92)0.68 (0.51–0.90)SL = 0.72yesSL = 0.74yes
19. SwazilandNone/Primary1.001.94 (1.47–2.56)4.01 (2.68–6.01)1.94 (1.47–2.56)4.01 (2.68–6.01)    
 Secondary/Higher1.54 (1.21–1.97)2.48 (1.92–3.20)3.29 (2.58–4.20)1.61 (1.18–2.18)2.13 (1.62–2.81)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.83 (0.58–1.18)0.53 (0.34–0.82)AL = 0.35noSL = 0.66yes
20. ZambiaNone/Primary1.002.02 (1.67–2.43)5.27 (4.18–6.63)2.02 (1.67–2.43)5.27 (4.18–6.63)    
 Secondary/Higher1.37 (1.00–1.88)2.66 (2.18–3.25)6.14 (4.97–7.60)1.94 (1.43–2.62)4.48 (3.25–6.17)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.96 (0.67–1.38)0.85 (0.59–1.22)AL = 0.85noAL = 0.44no
Upper-Middle Income Countries
21. GabonNone/Primary1.002.88 (1.96–4.23)3.98 (2.47–6.41)2.88 (1.96–4.23)3.98 (2.47–6.41)    
 Secondary/Higher1.60 (1.12–2.28)3.02 (1.99–4.59)3.59 (2.41–5.34)1.89 (1.27–2.81)2.25 (1.55–3.26)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.66 (0.42–1.04)0.57 (0.35–0.92)AL < 0.01noSL = 0.45no
22. NamibiaNone/Primary1.002.68 (1.91–3.77)5.50 (3.05–9.91)2.68 (1.91–3.77)5.50 (3.05–9.91)    
 Secondary/Higher1.51 (1.06–2.14)3.76 (2.71–5.21)5.94 (4.15–8.50)2.49 (1.94–3.21)3.94 (2.93–5.30)    
 Measure of effect modification on multiplicative scale: ratio of ORs (95% CIs)0.93 (0.62–1.38)0.72 (0.38–1.36)AL = 0.72noAL = 0.17no