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Table 3 A multivariable multilevel analysis of factors associated with anemia among lactating mothers in Ethiopia, 2016

From: Individual and community level factors associated with anemia among lactating mothers in Ethiopia using data from Ethiopian demographic and health survey, 2016; a multilevel analysis

Variables Model I Model II
AOR (95%CI)
Model III
AOR (95%CI)
Model IV
AOR (95%CI)
Maternal education
 No formal education   1.00   1.00
 Primary education   0.96(0.79–1.17)   1.00(0.82–1.22)
 Secondary education   1.07(0.76–1.52)   1.14(0.80–1.63)
 Higher education   1.41(0.85–2.35)   1.51(0.90–2.52)
Maternal occupation
 Working   0.76(0.63–0.91)   0.77(0.64–0.92) **
 Not working   1.00   1.00
Wealth status
 Poorest   1.00   1.00
 Poorer   0.71(0.57–0.89)   0.77(0.61–0.98) *
 Middle   0.64(0.50–0.83)   0.74(0.56–0.97) *
 Rich   0.53(0.40–0.70)   0.64(0.46–0.85) *
 Richest   0.52(0.37–0.74)   0.66(0.43–0.98) *
Sex of household head
 Female   1.23(1.02–1.50)   1.22(1.01–1.49) *
 Male   1.00   
Maternal BMI
 18.5–24.99   1.00   1.00
  < 18.5   1.2(1.00–1.43)   1.78(0.99–1.41)
  ≥ 25   0.84(0.61–1.15)   0.82(0.60–1.13)
Perception of distance from the health facility
 Big problem   1.00   1.00
 Not big problem   0.97(0.82–1.15)   1.00(0.84–1.18)
Media exposure
 Yes   0.91(0.75–1.11)   0.92(0.75–1.14)
 No   1.00   1.00
Source of drinking water
 Pipe   1.00   1.00
 Other improved   1.18(0.93–1.50)   1.18(.93–1.51)
 Not improved   1.14(0.90–1.45)   1.13(0.89–1.45)
Type of toilet facility
 Improved   1.00   1.00
 Not improved   0.80(0.61–1.04)   0.82(0.62–1.07)
Place of delivery
 Home   1.00   1.00
 Health facility   0.93(0.76–1.14)   0.96(0.78–1.18)
Delivery by CS
 Yes   0.81(0.49–1.34)   0.81(0.49–1.34)
 No   1.00   
History of a terminated pregnancy
 Yes   0.76(0.57–1.02)   0.76(0.57–1.02)
 No   1.00   1.00
ANC visit
 No visit   1.00   1.00
 one-three   1.05(0.85–1.30)   1.06(0.86–1.32)
 four and above   0.97(0.77–1.23)   0.99(0.78–1.25)
Iron supplementation during pregnancy
 Yes   0.81(0.68–0.97)   0.82(0.68–0.98) *
 No   1.00   1.00
Current modern contraceptive use
 Yes   0.69(0.56–0.84)   0.71(0.58–0 .87) ***
 No   1.00   1.00
Duration of breastfeeding
 ≤ 12 months   1.00   1.00
 13 to 36   0.88(0.74–1.05)   0.89(0.74–1.06)
 37 and above   0.89(0.70–1.12)   0.90(0.71–1.14)
Births in the five years
 One   1.00   1.00
 Two   1.29(1.06–1.57)   1.27(1.04–1.55) *
 Three to four   1.59(1.19–2.14)   1.53(1.14–2.06) **
Parity
 Primiparous   1.00   1.00
 Multiparous   1.07(0.83–1.37)   1.08(0.84–1.39)
 Grand multiparous   1.21(0.92–1.60)   1.23(0.94–1.62)
Residence
 Urban    1.00 1.00
 Rural    1.38(0.99–1.91) 1.13(0.75–1.72)
Community media exposure
 Low    1.00 1.00
 High    0.91(0.73–1.13) 0.96(0.77–1.20)
Community illiteracy level
 Low    1.00 1.00
 High    1.60(1.26–2.04) 1.34(1.06–1.70) *
Community poverty level
 Low    1.00 1.00
 High    1.65(1.28–2.12) 1.15(0.88–1.51)
  1. AOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, * = P < 0.05, ** = P < 0.01 and *** = P ≤ 0.001
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