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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of lactating mothers in Ethiopia, 2016

From: Individual and community level factors associated with anemia among lactating mothers in Ethiopia using data from Ethiopian demographic and health survey, 2016; a multilevel analysis

Variables Frequency Percentage
Maternal age
 15–19 249 5.32
 20–29 2306 49.52
 30–39 1733 37.20
 40–49 370 7.90
Maternal education
 No formal education 2916 62.61
 Primary education 1395 29.95
 Secondary education 247 5.30
 Higher education 100 2.14
Religion
 Orthodox 1824 39.17
 Protestant 1017 21.82
 Muslim 1673 35.91
 Other* 144 3.10
Current marital status
 Married 4383 94.11
 Unmarried 275 5.89
Maternal occupation
 Working 1196 25.67
 Not working 3462 74.33
Wealth status
 Poorest 1055 22.64
 Poorer 1054 22.63
 Middle 1017 21.85
 Rich 868 18.63
 Richest 664 14.25
Sex of household head
 Female 606 13.00
 Male 4052 87.00
Maternal BMI
 < 18.5 943 20.25
 18.5–24.99 3479 74.70
 ≥ 25 263 5.05
Smoking
 Yes 32 0.68
 No 4626 99.32
Health insurance coverage
 Yes 224 479
 No 4434 95.21
Perception of distance from the health facility
 Big problem 2762 59.29
 Not big problem 1896 40.71
Media exposure
 Yes 1291 27.71
 No 3367 72.29
Source of drinking water
 Pipe 1242 26.66
 Other improved 1415 30.37
 Not improved 2001 42.97
Type of toilet facility
 Improved 405 8.69
 Not improved 4253 91.31
Place of delivery
 Home 3104 66.65
 Health facility 1554 33.35
Delivery by CS
 Yes 115 2.46
 No 4543 97.54
History of a terminated pregnancy
 Yes 382 8.19
 No 4276 91.81
ANC visit
 No visit 1592 34.18
 one-three 1513 32.48
 four and above 1553 33.34
Iron supplementation during pregnancy
 No 2482 53.28
 Yes 2176 46.72
Current modern contraceptive use
 Yes 1615 65.34
 No 3043 34.66
Duration of breastfeeding
 ≤ 12 months 2242 48.13
 13 to 36 1483 31.84
 37 and above 933 20.03
Births in the five years
 One 2461 52.84
 Two 1854 39.80
 Three to four 343 7.37
Parity
 Primiparous 919 19.71
 Multiparous 1935 41.53
 Grand multiparous 1804 38.75
Birth interval
 < 24 month 579 15.47
 ≥ 24 month 3159 84.53
Residence
 Urban 501 10.74
 Rural 4157 89.26
Community media exposure
 Low 2130 45.72
 High 2528 54.28
Community illiteracy level
 Low 2444 52.48
 High 2214 47.52
Community poverty level
 Low 2818 60.49
 High 1839 39.51
  1. Other* = catholic, traditional & other
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