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Table 3 Summary of published studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the effect on workers with post-traumatic stress disorder

From: Occupational post-traumatic stress disorder: an updated systematic review

First author.YearCountryStudy designTraumaParticipantsEffectResults
Giosan, C2015USACross-sectionalWorking after the 9/11 attack2453 utility workersCAPSPTSD severity was significantly associated with sleep disturbance (β = 0.52, p-value < 0.01).
Mindlis, I2017USALongitudinalWorking after 911181 rescue and recovery
workers with asthma
Asthma morbidityPTSD patients showed
- Worse asthma control (mean difference = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.12–1.02)
- Poorer asthma quality of life (mean difference = − 0.83, 95% CI: −1.32–0.34)
- Higher rates of inpatient healthcare utilization due to asthma (adjusted OR = 11.9, 95% CI: 3.5–40.1).
Hunnicutt-Ferguson, K2018USALongitudinalWorking after the 9/11 attackClean-up and restore workers who met the criteria for PTSD or subthreshold PTSD at baseline (N = 514), 1-year (N = 289), and 2-year follow-up (N = 179)Functional impairment and subjective distressPTSD severity was positively associated with
- Subjective distress,
- Social impairment
- Occupational impairment
Yu, S2016USALongitudinalWorking after the 9/11 attack7662 rescue and recovery workersEarly retirement and job loss(Adjusted OR, 95% CI)
Chronic conditions and
PTSD comorbidity increased OR for
1) Early retirement
- Three chronic conditionswithout PTSD (1.3, 0.6–2.7)
- Three chronic conditions with PTSD (2.1, 1.2–3.9)
2) Job loss
- Three chronic conditionswithout PTSD (3.2, 1.6–6.5)
- Three chronic conditions with PTSD (10.7, 6.7–17.2)
de la Hoz, RE2016USALongitudinalWorking after the 9/11 attack11,481 workers and volunteers who performed rescue, recovery, and service restoration dutiesBDR, incident asthma(Adjusted OR, 95% CI)
Mean f/u period 4.95 years. 1) PTSD - > BDR
- At baseline, all participants (N = 11,481): (1.4, 1.2–1.7)
2) PTSD - > incident asthma
- F/u visits, never smokers without asthma at baseline (N = 3757): (2.4, 1.9–3.1).
Luft, BJ2012USALongitudinalWorking after 9118508 police and 12,333 non-traditional respondersRespiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function test1) Correlation: Lower respiratory symptoms
- Police (r = 0.28)
- Non-traditional responders (r = 0.27)2) No correlation: lung function
- Police (r = 0.03)
- Non-traditional responders (r = 0.03)
Kerai, S2017PakistanCross-sectionalWorking related factors507 emergency medical
service personnel (doctors 37, nurses 202, drivers 211, paramedics 57)
Work performance: number of late arrivals to work, number of days absent, number of days sick, adherence to protocol, and patient satisfaction over a period of 3 monthsNo statistically significant association was found between PTSD and work performance in multiple logistic regression.
Kotov, R2015USALongitudinalWorking after 91118,896 responders (8466 police and 10,430 non-traditional)Respiratory symptomsLower respiratory symptoms was positively correlated with
- Worked in dust cloud,
- Long hours on site
  1. CAPS: Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale
  2. BDR: Bronchodilator response
  3. OR: Odds ratio
  4. 95% CI: 95% confidence interval