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Table 1 Summary of published studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the status of post-traumatic stress disorder among workers

From: Occupational post-traumatic stress disorder: an updated systematic review

First author.YearCountryStudy designTraumaParticipantsTrauma assessmentPrevalence or incidence
Sakuma, A2015JapanCross-sectionalWorking after earthquake1294 disaster relief and reconstruction workers (327 firefighters, 610 local municipality workers, and 357 hospital medical workers)PCL-S ≥ 44, 14 months after the earthquakeLocal municipality workers (9.0%)
Medical workers (9.3%)
Firefighters (2.6%)
Lee, JH2016KoreaCross-sectionalWorking related factors3817 police officers with a traumatic event over a 1-year periodIES ≥26All workers (41.1%)
Inspector group (46.0%): assistant inspector group (42.7%)
Intelligence and national security
Division (43.6%),
Police precinct (43.5%): traffic affairs
Management department (43.3%)
Shi, L2017ChinaCross-sectionalPhysical violence2706 healthcare workers from 39 public hospitalsPCL-C ≥ 50All workers (28.0%)
Maslow, CB2015USALongitudinalWorking after 91116,488 rescue, recovery, and clean-up workersPCL-CLow-stable group (53.3%)
Moderate-stable group (28.7%),
Moderate-increasing group (6.4%)
High-decreasing group (7.7%)
High-stable group (4.0%)
Carmassi, C2016ItalyCross-sectionalWorking related factors110 emergency staffTrauma and Loss Spectrum-Self ReportAll (15.7%)
Doctor (6.5%)
Nurses (15.7%)
Healthcare assistants (15.7%)
Fichera, GP2015ItalyCross-sectionalBank robbery383 bank employee victims of robberyIES > 3413% at 45 days after the robbery
Cukor, J2011USALongitudinalWorking after 911Clean-up and restore workers; 1) N = 727, 2) N = 26261) CAPS
2) PCL-C
1) 8.4% at 4-years after 911, 5.8% at 6 years after 911
2) 4.8% at 4-years after 911, 2.4% at 6 years after 911
Bromet, EJ2015USALongitudinalWorking after 9113231 World Trade Center responders (957 non-traditional and 2274 police)DSM-IV9.7% current, 7.9% remitted, and 5.9% partial PTSD
Shamia, NA2015UKCross-sectionalWar in Gaza274 nursesPCL-S:19.7% at 2 years after the war
  1. PCL-S: PTSD checklist-specific version
  2. IES: Impact of Event Scale
  3. PCL-C: PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version
  4. CAPS: Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale
  5. DSM-IV: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition