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Table 2 Multilevel logistic analysis of factors associated with total unmet need among sexually active women

From: Multilevel analysis of factors associated with unmet need for family planning among Malawian women

Variable Null model Model I
aOR (95% CI)
Model II
aOR (95% CI)
Model III
aOR (95% CI)
Individual-level factors
 Woman’s age (years)
  15–24   1.00   1.00
  25–34   0.98 (0.87–1.10)   0.98 (0.87–1.10)
   ≥ 35   1.17 (1.03–1.33)   1.19 (1.04–1.35)
 Number of children ever had
  0   1.00   1.00
  1   0.61 (0.37–1.01)   0.60 (0.36–1.00)
  2+   0.62 (0.37–1.04)   0.61 (0.36–1.03)
 Wealth
  Poor   1.00   1.00
  Middle   0.94 (0.84–1.05)   0.95 (0.85–1.06)
  Rich   0.94 (0.84–1.05)   0.99 (0.88–1.11)
 Marital status
  Unmarried   1.00   1.00
  Married   0.42 (0.35–0.49)   0.41 (0.35–0.48)
 Employed
  No   1.00   1.00
  Yes   0.76 (0.69–0.82)   0.78 (0.71–0.85)
 Residence
  Urban   1.00   1.00
  Rural   1.09 (0.96–1.25)   0.91 (0.77–1.07)
 Region
  Northern   1.00   1.00
  Central   0.78 (0.69–0.89)   0.69 (0.60–0.80)
  Southern   0.91 (0.81–1.03)   0.80 (0.70–0.92)
 Woman’s educational level
  No formal education   1.00   1.00
  Primary   0.85 (0.75–0.96)   0.90 (0.79–1.02)
  Secondary and higher   0.87 (0.74–1.02)   0.94 (0.80–1.11)
 Religion
  Catholics   1.00   1.00
  Protestants   1.01 (0.89–1.14)   1.00 (0.88–1.13)
  Muslims and other   1.14 (1.03–1.27)   1.12 (1.01–1.25)
 Experienced death of child
  No   1.00   1.00
  Yes   0.90 (0.55–1.47)   0.88 (0.54–1.44)
 Media exposure
  No   1.00   1.00
  Yes   0.82 (0.75–0.90)   0.82 (0.75–0.90)
 Distance to HF
  No problem   1.00   1.00
  Problem   1.09 (1.01–1.19)   1.05 (0.96–1.15)
Community-level factors
 Community wealth
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Middle    0.94 (0.84–1.05) 0.90 (0.81–1.01)
  High    0.87 (0.76–1.01) 0.81 (0.67–0.96)
 Community employment
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Middle    0.87 (0.78–0.97) 0.95 (0.85–1.06)
  High    0.76 (0.67–0.85) 0.88 (0.78–0.99)
 Community women’s education
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Middle    0.86 (0.77–0.98) 0.86 (0.76–0.96)
  High    0.84 (0.74–0.95) 0.81 (0.70–0.93)
 Community distance to HF
  Low    1.00 1.00
  Middle    1.18 (1.04–1.33) 1.17 (1.03–1.32)
  High    1.11 (0.97–1.27) 1.08 (0.93–1.24)
 Measures of variation
  Area variance (95% CI) 0.14 (0.10–0.19) 0.10 (0.06–0.15) 0.11 (0.07–0.16) 0.09 (0.05–0.14)
  ICC (%) 4.0 2.9 3.2 2.7
  PCV (%) Ref. 28.6 21.4 35.7
  MOR 1.43 1.35 1.37 1.33
 Model Fit statistic
  AIC 16,154.26 15,877.07 16,116.63 15,860.86
  1. Null model contains no explanatory variables; Model I includes individual-level factors only; Model II includes community-level factors only; Model III includes both individual-level and community-level factors
  2. aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence internal, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, MOR median odds ratio, PVC proportional change in variance, AIC Akaike information criterion