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Table 2 GRADE evidence profile: Healthcare service utilization for people with private insurance and without private insurance

From: Utilization of public health care by people with private health insurance: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Certainty assessment № of patients Effect Certainty Importance
№ of studies Study design Risk of bias Inconsistency Indirectness Imprecision Other considerations [PI] [NPI] Relative (95% CI) Absolute (95% CI)
Percentage of ED visits
5 observational studies serious a serious b not serious not serious none 47,085/263309 (17.9%) 8507/32261 (26.4%) OR 0.65 (0.27 to 1.60) 75 fewer per 1000 (from 176 fewer to 101 more)
LOW
IMPORTANT
Rate of ED visits
12 observational studies serious c serious b not serious not serious none 69,093,411/484565590 (14.3%) 18,060,477/104113489 (17.3%) OR 1.01 (0.58 to 1.76) 1 more per 1000 (from 65 fewer to 96 more)
LOW
IMPORTANT
Rate of outpatient visits
10 observational studies serious c not serious not serious not serious none 46,584 74,303 MD 0.19 lower (0.29 lower to 0.09 lower)
MODERATE
IMPORTANT
Inpatient length of say
5 observational studies serious a serious b not serious not serious none 28,323 276,108 MD 2.01 higher (0.15 lower to 4.17 higher)
LOW
IMPORTANT
Rates of hospitalization
13 observational studies serious c serious b not serious not serious none 29,037,397/484545600 (6.0%) 7,218,894/104024265 (6.9%) OR 1.00 (0.58 to 1.70) 0 fewer per 1000 (from 28 fewer to 43 more) LOW IMPORTANT
  1. CI Confidence interval, OR Odds ratio, MD Mean difference, PI private insurance, NPI no private insurance
  2. Explanations
  3. a All included full reports had the problem of missing data
  4. b Favorable results for both people with private insurance and people without private insurance were reported
  5. c Having the problem of missing data and some data came from abstracts