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Table 5 Overview of the educational methods that can be used within the sub-Saharan African context, the appropriate age groups, their strengths and weaknesses

From: An educational pathway and teaching materials for first aid training of children in sub-Saharan Africa based on the best available evidence

Educational methodAppropriate age groupsStrengthsLimitationsAdditional panel remarks
5–8 yrs9–12 yrs13–18 yrs
SongxxxEasy to motivate children; Enables memorizationPassive way of receiving information; Possible lack of knowledge or understanding of the lyrics 
QuizxxxInteractive; Engages all children at the same timeLanguage and comprehension may be a challenge, particularly for non-first language speakersShould be adapted to the language spoken by and environment of the children; Local contextually appropriate questions should be created
Colouringx  Enables practical rehearsal of the content; Active learningChildren may not have the necessary hand motor skills8–12-year-olds could colour, whereas 9–12-year-olds can draw themselves
PoemxxxAllows for repetition, which enables memorizationDifficult wording might interfere with understanding; Can only be used for key messages5–8-year-olds can recite a poem taught to them, whereas at a later age, children may be able to write their own poems
Puppetryx  Very visual; Can be engaging, particularly with younger age groupsDifficult to pin content to it; Trainers should be confident with it (time-consuming) 
Drawingx   Some children might not succeed in drawing; Can be time-consumingThe act of drawing should not interfere with learning
Case studyxxxCan come from the learners themselves; Easy to adapt according to ageNot easy to find a case study that fits the content and the context; When analyzing a case study from a learner, must include and manage children’s emotional reactions to the case; Trainers should be taught to run a case study5–8-year-olds: incorporate visual elements such as photos 9–12-year-olds: work with a story
Group workxxxPeer to peer narration and active involvement; Children can speak in their own languageSome children are quiet when in groups and might not say anythingThe social aspect of group work can be initiated at 5–8 years, but group work can only really occur from 9 years of age onwards
StorytellingxxxEngaging and entertaining; A story can be adapted to the content and age of the childIf the content is not adjusted to the age group, children may listen without understanding 
Self-discoveryxxxExperiential learning; May include take-home exercisesNeed for clear guidelines before and after activity to ensure that the right lessons are learnt 
Drama and simulationxxxEngaging and entertainingChallenges with group work and holding attention 
DemonstrationxxxFocus on practical skills (key for First Aid training)Depending on the size of the group, teachers may not be able to engage everyone; Demonstration needs to be done properly, so teachers need training; Skills may need to be broken down into components, to ensure that learners are able to understand and gain the practical skill 
Quotes xxCan be used for big groups; − Children have to think independently whether or not they agree with the quote, and will have to take a position  
  1. x marks an appropriate age range, x marks the most appropriate age range