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Table 3 Results of the meta-analyses on the effectiveness of the 3 categories of educational interventions

From: An educational pathway and teaching materials for first aid training of children in sub-Saharan Africa based on the best available evidence

OutcomeComparisonEffect Size# effect sizes, # studiesReference
Composite test scores (SMD±SE)Provision of instructional materials vs no intervention (business as usual)Not statistically significant:
SMD: 0.01±0.01, 95% CI [-0.01;0.02] (p = 0.23) a
5 effect sizes from 3 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Language arts test scores (SMD±SE)Provision of instructional materials vs no intervention (business as usual)Not statistically significant:
SMD: 0.00±0.01, 95% CI [-0.02;0.02] (p = 0.78) a
5 effect sizes from 4 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Maths test scores (SMD±SE)Provision of instructional materials vs no intervention (business as usual)Not statistically significant:
SMD: -0.02±0.02, 95% CI [-0.06;0.02] (p = 0.26) a
5 effect sizes from 4 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Learning/testing outcomes (Cohen’s d ± SE)Use of alternative pedagogical methods vs conventional teaching methodsStatistically significant:
Cohen’s d: 0.918±0.314, 95% CI [0.25;1.59] (p<0.05)
41 effect sizes from 17 studies bConn, 2014 [24]
Cognitive test scores (SMD±SE)Structured pedagogy interventionsvs no intervention or other small educational interventionNot statistically significant:
SMD: 0.01±0.03, 95% CI
[-0.04;0.07] (p = 0.66) a
2 effect sizes from 2 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Composite test scores (SMD±SE)Structured pedagogy interventionsvs no intervention or other small educational interventionStatistically significant:
SMD: 0.06±0.01, 95% CI [0.03;0.08] (p < 0.0001)
3 effect sizes from 3 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Composite test scores (SMD±SE)Structured pedagogy interventionsvs no intervention or other small educational interventionGrades 1-3 sub-group:
Statistically significant:
SMD: 0.09±0.02, 95% CI [0.05;0.13] (p < 0.0001)
2 effect sizes from 2 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Composite test scores (SMD±SE)Structured pedagogy interventionsvs no intervention or other small educational interventionGrades 4-5 sub-group:
Statistically significant:
SMD: 0.08±0.02, 95% CI [0.04;0.12] (p < 0.0001)
2 effect sizes from 2 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Language arts test scores (SMD±SE)Structured pedagogy interventionsvs no intervention or other small educational interventionStatistically significant:
SMD: 0.23±0.05, 95% CI [0.13;0.34] (p < 0.001)
67 effect sizes from 17 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Language arts test scores (SMD±SE)Structured pedagogy interventionsvs no intervention or other small educational interventionGrades 1-3 sub-group:
Statistically significant:
SMD: 0.23±0.06, 95% CI [0.11;0.35] (p < 0.01)
63 effect sizes from 14 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Language arts test scores (SMD±SE)Structured pedagogy interventionsvs no intervention or other small educational interventionGrades 4-6 sub-group:
Not statistically significant:
SMD: 0.21±0.13, 95% CI [-0.04;0.47] (p = 0.10) a
4 effect sizes from 4 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Maths test scores (SMD±SE)Structured pedagogy interventionsvs no intervention or other small educational interventionStatistically significant:
SMD: 0.14±0.03, 95% CI [0.08;0.20] (p < 0.001)
24 effect sizes from 14 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Maths test scores (SMD±SE)Structured pedagogy interventionsvs no intervention or other small educational interventionGrades 1-3 sub-group:
Statistically significant:
SMD: 0.08±0.03, 95% CI [0.03;0.13] (p < 0.01)
9 effect sizes from 9 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
Maths test scores (SMD±SE)Structured pedagogy interventionsvs no intervention or other small educational interventionGrades 4-6 sub-group:
Statistically significant:
SMD: 0.21±0.08, 95% CI [0.04;0.37] (p < 0.05)
4 effect sizes from 4 studies bSnilstveit, 2015 [23]
  1. SMD standardized mean difference, SE standard error
  2. a Imprecision (lack of data): mean of the control group is not reported
  3. b Imprecision (lack of data): total sample size is not reported