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Table 4 Univariable and multivariable associations between sociodemographic factors and willingness to self-test among men in Zimbabwe, by those at low, moderate and high HIV-related risk, 2015–16

From: Use and awareness of and willingness to self-test for HIV: an analysis of cross-sectional population-based surveys in Malawi and Zimbabwe

VariablesUnivariable (weighted)Multivariable (weighted)
Having low risk
(n = 3142)a
Having moderate risk (n = 2988)aHaving high risk
(n = 1241)a
Having low risk
(n = 3142)a
Having moderate risk
(n = 2988)a
Having high risk
(n = 1241)a
OR95% CI and
OR95% CI and
OR95% CI and
aOR95% CI and
aOR95% CI and
aOR95% CI and
Age (years)
 15–191p < 0.001§1p = 0.063§1p = 0.028§1p = 0.106§1p = 0.343§1p = 0.030§
 Urban1 1 1 1 1 1 
 Poorest1p = 0.128§1p = 0.113§1p = 0.981§1p = 0.102§1p = 0.260§1p = 0.080§
 Not actively working1 1 1 1 1 1 
 Actively working1.641.35–1.991.190.86–1.630.720.44–1.181.411.13–1.771.120.78–1.610.570.34–0.95
HIV status
 HIV negative1 1 1 1 1 1 
 HIV positive1.821.19–2.790.940.56–1.590.760.43–1.351.410.87–2.300.840.49–1.420.670.37–1.21
Marital status
 Single1 1 1 1 1 1 
 Married or cohabiting0.590.40–890.720.47–1.100.720.49–1.06bbbbbb
  ≤ Primary1 1 1 1 1 1 
  ≥ Secondary1.521.22–1.891.200.91–1.581.190.77–1.86bbbbbb
 Illiterate1 1 1 1 1 1 
Ever tested
 No1 1 1 1 1 1 
Aware of self-test
 No1 1 1 1 1 1 
  1. a Weighted analysis using standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) sample weights: Sample size = 7041.0867; Strata = 19; PSU = 400. Out of 7420 men surveyed, 7372 reported on willingness to self-test. Forty-eight men did not respond and one did not provide information on sexual activity (HIV risk). Sexual activity was not reported by one respondent and could not be used in the HIV risk variable. These variables have a total sample size of 7371
  2. b Represents variables that were not included in the multivariable analysis due to identified collinearity
  3. c HIV risk as defined in this analysis includes reported sexual activity in the past four weeks, and the following high-risk exposures in the previous 12 months: multiple (i.e. ≥2) partners, any paid sex (asked to men), having received gifts, cash or other compensation in exchange for sex (asked to women), and having a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Individuals with any “high-risk” exposure were classified as “high-risk”, with the remaining respondents classified as “low risk” if reporting no sexually activity in the past four weeks, and as “moderate risk” otherwise
  4. §P-value based on the Wald test. P-values for variables with more than two categories are shown