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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable associations between sociodemographic factors and awareness of HIV self-testing in Malawi and Zimbabwe, 2015–16

From: Use and awareness of and willingness to self-test for HIV: an analysis of cross-sectional population-based surveys in Malawi and Zimbabwe

VariablesUnivariable (weighted)
N = 24,683a
Multivariable (weighted)
N = 24,668a
OR95% CI and
aOR95% CI and
 Zimbabwe1 1 
 Female1 1 
 15–191p < 0.001§1p < 0.001§
 Urban1 1 
Ever tested
 No1 1 
HIV status
 HIV negative1 1 
 HIV positive1.120.95–1.310.890.75–1.06
Marital status
 Single1 1 
 Married or cohabiting1.261.13–1.39bb
 Poorest1p < 0.001§1p < 0.001§
 Not actively working1 1 
 Actively working1.631.47–1.821.251.12–1.42
  ≤ Primary1 1 
  ≥ Secondary education2.692.38–3.04bb
 Illiterate1 1 
HIV riskc
 Low risk1p < 0.001§1p < 0.518
 Moderate risk1.371.24–1.531.030.90–1.17
 High risk1.751.51––1.31
  1. a Both samples were weighted based on standard Demographic and Health Survey weights; Strata = 56; PSU = 1256. Not all participants were systematically surveyed on self-testing questions. Out of 31,385 people surveyed, 24,683 were asked about self-testing, resulting in a smaller sample size. Among those reporting on HIV self-testing, 15 did not provide information on sexual activity and HIV risk. Population size asked about awareness or ever self-testing for HIV: 24668 (HIV risk), 24,668 (sexual activity)
  2. b Represents variables that were not included in the multivariable analysis due to identified collinearity
  3. c HIV risk as defined in this analysis includes reported sexual activity in the past four weeks, and the following high-risk exposures in the previous 12 months: multiple (i.e. ≥2) partners, any paid sex (asked to men), having received gifts, cash or other compensation in exchange for sex (asked to women), and having a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Individuals with any “high-risk” exposures were classified as “high-risk”, with the remaining respondents classified as “low risk” if reporting no sexually activity in the past four weeks, and as “moderate risk” otherwise
  4. §P-value based on the Wald test. P-values for variables with more than two categories are shown