Skip to main content

Table 3 Univariable and multivariable associations between sociodemographic factors and awareness of HIV self-testing in Malawi and Zimbabwe, 2015–16

From: Use and awareness of and willingness to self-test for HIV: an analysis of cross-sectional population-based surveys in Malawi and Zimbabwe

VariablesUnivariable (weighted)
N = 24,683a
Multivariable (weighted)
N = 24,668a
OR95% CI and
p-value
aOR95% CI and
p-value
Country
 Zimbabwe1 1 
 Malawi0.760.67–0.870.820.70–0.94
Sex
 Female1 1 
 Male1.731.54–1.921.551.37–1.75
Age
 15–191p < 0.001§1p < 0.001§
 20–241.791.50–2.121.351.12–1.62
 25–292.522.11–3.001.761.43–2.17
 30–342.442.02–2.941.661.32–2.08
 35–392.462.04–2.971.691.34–2.12
 40–442.091.70–2.551.451.14–1.86
 45+2.001.64–2.461.311.04–1.66
Residence
 Urban1 1 
 Rural0.330.29–0.390.640.55–0.77
Ever tested
 No1 1 
 Yes2.181.94–2.451.891.65–2.17
HIV status
 HIV negative1 1 
 HIV positive1.120.95–1.310.890.75–1.06
Marital status
 Single1 1 
 Married or cohabiting1.261.13–1.39bb
Wealth
 Poorest1p < 0.001§1p < 0.001§
 Poor1.261.04–1.531.241.02–1.51
 Middle1.261.03–1.531.251.02–1.53
 Rich1.871.53–2.281.491.20–1.84
 Richest4.303.54–5.223.032.46–3.73
Employment
 Not actively working1 1 
 Actively working1.631.47–1.821.251.12–1.42
Education
  ≤ Primary1 1 
  ≥ Secondary education2.692.38–3.04bb
Literacy
 Illiterate1 1 
 Literate1.841.59–2.121.171.01–1.36
HIV riskc
 Low risk1p < 0.001§1p < 0.518
 Moderate risk1.371.24–1.531.030.90–1.17
 High risk1.751.51–2.031.100.93–1.31
  1. a Both samples were weighted based on standard Demographic and Health Survey weights; Strata = 56; PSU = 1256. Not all participants were systematically surveyed on self-testing questions. Out of 31,385 people surveyed, 24,683 were asked about self-testing, resulting in a smaller sample size. Among those reporting on HIV self-testing, 15 did not provide information on sexual activity and HIV risk. Population size asked about awareness or ever self-testing for HIV: 24668 (HIV risk), 24,668 (sexual activity)
  2. b Represents variables that were not included in the multivariable analysis due to identified collinearity
  3. c HIV risk as defined in this analysis includes reported sexual activity in the past four weeks, and the following high-risk exposures in the previous 12 months: multiple (i.e. ≥2) partners, any paid sex (asked to men), having received gifts, cash or other compensation in exchange for sex (asked to women), and having a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Individuals with any “high-risk” exposures were classified as “high-risk”, with the remaining respondents classified as “low risk” if reporting no sexually activity in the past four weeks, and as “moderate risk” otherwise
  4. §P-value based on the Wald test. P-values for variables with more than two categories are shown