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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable associations between sociodemographic factors and ever testing for HIV in Malawi and Zimbabwe, 2015–16

From: Use and awareness of and willingness to self-test for HIV: an analysis of cross-sectional population-based surveys in Malawi and Zimbabwe

VariablesUnivariable (weighted)
N = 31,375a
Multivariable (weighted)
N = 31,347a
OR95% CI and
aOR95% CI and
 Zimbabwe1 1 
 Female1 1 
Age (years)
 15–191p < 0.001§1p < 0.001§
 Urban1 1 
HIV status
 HIV negative1 1 
 HIV positive3.442.98–3.972.111.80–2.49
Marital status
 Single1 1 
 Married or cohabiting6.075.62–6.54bb
 Poorest1p < 0.003§1p < 0.581§
 Not actively working1 1 
 Actively working1.811.69–1.951.161.06–1.26
  ≤ Primary1 1 
  ≥ Secondary1.261.17–1.35bb
 Illiterate1 1 
HIV-related riskc
 Low risk1p < 0.001§1p < 0.001§
 Moderate risk4.584.23–4.962.151.96–2.36
 High risk2.141.92–2.401.541.80–2.49
  1. a Both samples were weighted based on standard DHS weights; Strata = 56; PSU = 1256. Univariable draws from a total of 31,385 observations, population size 31,375. Multivariable draws from a total of 31,348 observations and population size of 31,338. This excludes 37 people who did not report on sexual activity and risk behaviours and are missing from the “HIV risk category”
  2. bRepresents variables that were not included in the multivariable analysis due to identified collinearity
  3. c HIV risk as defined in this analysis includes reported sexual activity in the past four weeks, and the following high-risk exposures in the previous 12 months: multiple (i.e. ≥2) partners, any paid sex (asked to men), having received gifts, cash or other compensation in exchange for sex (asked to women), and having a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Individuals with any “high-risk” exposures were classified as “high-risk”, with the remaining respondents classified as “low risk” if reporting no sexually activity in the past four weeks, and as “moderate risk” otherwise
  4. §P-value based on the Wald test. P-values for variables with more than two categories are shown