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Table 1 Baseline characteristics in Malawi and Zimbabwe, 2015–16

From: Use and awareness of and willingness to self-test for HIV: an analysis of cross-sectional population-based surveys in Malawi and Zimbabwe

VariablesaEver tested
(N = 31,385)b
Ever self-test
(N = 24,683)b
Aware self-test
(N = 24,683)b
N%p-value§N%p-value§n%p-value§
Total population24,14876.9 2871.2 311812.6 
Country  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Malawi11,72675.4 1411.0 167111.4 
 Zimbabwe12,42278.6 1461.5 144714.5 
Sex  < 0.001  0.008  < 0.001
 Female14,50083.5 1031.0 9839.1 
 Male964868.8 1841.3 213515.3 
Residence  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Urban795179.9 1512.1 151621.2 
 Rural16,19775.9 1360.8 16029.1 
Age group (years)  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
 15–19325244.8 300.5 4377.0 
 20–24470380.7 420.9 56212.1 
 25–29433790.3 591.6 58016.0 
 30–34407091.1 551.7 49715.2 
 35–39324789.2 421.5 42615.7 
 40–44244687.4 351.7 30315.0 
 45+209380.8 241.1 31314.7 
Wealth  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Poorest369776.4 180.5 2466.4 
 Poorer402975.8 380.9 3367.8 
 Middle425275.3 260.6 2798.3 
 Rich559477.6 560.9 66912.2 
 Richest657678.5 1492.3 148822.8 
HIV status  < 0.001  0.108  0.029
 HIV negative20,64675.0 2491.1 276012.5 
 HIV positive257090.6 381.5 35810.4 
Marital status  < 0.001  0.005  < 0.001
 Single759558.9 990.9 117511.2 
 Married or cohabiting16,55389.5 1881.3 194313.7 
Employment  < 0.001  0.033  < 0.001
 Not actively working871970.1 851.0 8239.4 
 Actively working15,42981.4 2021.3 229514.4 
Education  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
  ≤ Primary10,61774.8 700.6 9277.5 
  ≥ Secondary13,53178.7 2171.8 219117.8 
Literacy  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Illiterate521173.5 440.7 4888.0 
 Literate18,93777.9 2431.3 263014.2 
Sexually active  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Sexually inactive906464.0 1071.5 122517.7 
 Active in past
4 weeks
15,05387.6 1801.5 189014.2 
HIV-related riskc  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001
 Low risk845763.5 940.9 110210.3 
 Moderate risk13,09288.7 1341.2 149713.6 
 High risk257078.8 592.0 51617.2 
  1. aEver tested refers to people surveyed on HIV testing history who reported that they previously tested for HIV before the survey. Overall, 31,385 people were asked about their HIV testing history and 24,148 responded that they had tested previously. Ever self-tested refers to people surveyed on HIV self-testing who reported that they had previously self-tested. Overall, 24,683 people were asked whether they had self-tested and 287 reported that they had self-tested previously. Aware of self-testing refers to people surveyed who reported that they were aware of HIV self-testing. Overall, 24,683 people were asked whether they were aware of self-testing and 3118 reported that they were aware of self-testing
  2. bOut of 31,385 people surveyed, 31,348 were included as 37 people were missing information on sexual activity and HIV-related risk. Not all participants were systematically surveyed on self-testing questions. Out of 31,385 people surveyed, 24,683 were asked about self-testing, resulting in a smaller sample size. Among these were 15 people reporting on self-testing who did not provide information on sexual activity and HIV risk. Population size asked about ever testing for HIV: 31347 (HIV risk/sexual activity). Population size asked about awareness or ever self-testing for HIV: 24668 (HIV risk/sexual activity)
  3. cHIV risk as defined in this analysis includes reported sexual activity in the past four weeks, and the following high-risk exposures in the previous 12 months: multiple (i.e. ≥2) partners, any paid sex (asked to men), having received gifts, cash or other compensation in exchange for sex (asked to women), and having a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Individuals with any “high-risk” exposures were classified as “high-risk”, with the remaining respondents classified as “low risk” if reporting no sexually activity in the past four weeks, and as “moderate risk” otherwise
  4. §P-value based on cluster-adjusted chi-squared test