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Table 2 Morbidity and mortality incidence and treatment by year

From: Substantial and sustained reduction in under-5 mortality, diarrhea, and pneumonia in Oshikhandass, Pakistan: evidence from two longitudinal cohort studies 15 years apart

 1989a1990199119921993199419951996a2011a2012a20132014a
< 5 Mortality/ 1000 LB114.3129.969.057.3102.073.074.979.5022.916.150.0
Diarrhea episodes29158745335140129424021110742358926
Diarrhea incidence/ CY (95%CI)2.1 (1.9–2.4)1.1 (1.0–1.2)0.8 (0.7–0.9)0.6 (0.6–0.7)0.6 (0.6–0.7)0.5 (0.4–0.5)0.4 (0.3–0.4)0.5 (0.4–0.5)1.3 (1.0–1.5)0.7 (0.6–0.8)0.8 (0.7–0.9)0.2 (0.1–0.2)
Diarrhea prevalence/ CY (95%CI)20.3 (19.6–21.1)7.0 (6.8–7.2)6.3 (6.1–6.5)4.8 (4.6–4.9)4.8 (4.6–4.9)3.0 (2.9–3.1)2.4 (2.3–2.5)2.2 (2.1–2.4)7.3 (6.7–7.8)2.5 (2.4–2.6)2.7 (2.6–2.9)0.4 (0.3–0.5)
Bloody diarrhea (%)54 (18.6)68 (11.6)56 (12.4)50 (14.2)45 (11.2)47 (16.0)19 (7.9)11 (5.2)5 (4.7)22 (5.2)33 (5.6)2 (7.7)
Acute diarrhea (%)108 (37.1)371 (63.2)244 (53.9)182 (51.9)243 (60.6)180 (61.2)151 (62.9)168 (79.6)76 (71.0)393 (92.9)567 (96.3)25 (96.2)
Given Extra fluids by mother (%)227 (78.0)473 (80.6)392 (86.5)324 (92.3)324 (80.8)245 (83.3)189 (78.8)187 (88.6)32 (29.9)187 (44.2)285 (48.4)11 (42.3)
Given ORS by mother (%)123 (42.3)303 (51.6)297 (65.6)242 (68.9)198 (49.4)164 (55.8)123 (51.3)112 (53.1)26 (24.3)151 (35.7)216 (36.7)5 (19.2)
Given ORS by RW/ LHW (%)269 (92.4)491 (83.6)397 (87.6)316 (90.0)270 (67.3)173 (58.8)169 (70.4)88 (41.7)36 (33.6)329 (77.8)469 (79.6)24 (92.3)
Prescribed antibiotics (diarrhea) (%)28 (9.6)48 (8.2)20 (4.4)2 (0.6)4 (1.0)2 (0.7)1 (0.4)1 (0.5)5 (4.7)45 (10.6)31 (5.3)3 (11.5)
pneumonia episodes   18a312208303150 38a19919
Pneumonia Incidence / CY (95% CI)   0.5 (0.3–0.7) a0.5 (0.5–0.6)0.3 (0.3–0.4)0.5 (0.4–0.6)0.5 (0.4–0.6) 0.1(0.1–0.1)a0.3 (0.2–0.3)0.1 (0.1–0.2)
Pneumonia prevalence/ CY (95% CI)   2.7 (2.2–3.3) a2.9 (2.7–3.0)1.9 (1.8–2.0)2.9 (2.8–3.1)3.0 (2.8–3.2) 0.2 (0.2–0.3) a1.9 (1.8–2.0)0.8 (0.7–1.0)
Severe pneumonia or very severe disease (%)   0 (0.0) a23 (7.4)8 (3.8)4 (1.3)12 (8.0) 1 (2.6) a11 (5.5)1 (5.3)
receiving antibiotics for pneumonia from non-study source (%)   0 (0.0) a28 (9.0)21 (10.1)20 (6.6)11 (7.3) 22 (56.4)67 (33.7)3 (15.8)
  1. aNot a full calendar year of surveillance. Please see methods section for details on dates and months of follow-up