Skip to main content

Table 1 Description of changes in socioeconomic and demographic characteristics between Study 1 and Study 2

From: Substantial and sustained reduction in under-5 mortality, diarrhea, and pneumonia in Oshikhandass, Pakistan: evidence from two longitudinal cohort studies 15 years apart

 Study 1Study 2
Children younger than 5 years followed18431169
Median age in months of children in the study during follow-up (IQR)28.8 (14.3–43.8)28.7 (14.0–44.5)
Female sex (%)879 (47.7)557 (47.6)
Families with children followed in the study#649675
Households with children followed in the study #433572
Mean household crowding (SD)7.9 (4.7)3.6 (2.2)
Children in improved houses (%)389 (21.1)636 (54.5)
Children in households using clean cooking fuel*; improved cookstove** (%)45 (2.4)21 (1.8)
Children living in house with improved toilet (%)48 (2.6)767 (65.7)
Children in household that settles drinking water*; has improved drinking water source** (%)992 (53.8)386 (33.0)
Children with illiterate mother (%)1303 (70.7)330 (28.2)
Children with illiterate father (%)562 (30.5)127 (10.9)
Median Monthly Household Income in Pakistan Rupees (Incomes at 2010 prices)2999 (18325)25,000 (20367)
< 5 mortality/1000 live births (total deaths)86.8 (103)19.8 (8)
Infant mortality/1000 live births (total deaths)71.7 (85)7.4 (3)
  1. # Multiple families could share a household. Families were defined as a mother, her husband and her children. Households were defined as multiple families sharing the same kitchen
  2. * Study 1 **Study 2