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Table 1 Sample means and sources of variation in province characteristics

From: Anatomy of provincial level inequality in maternal mortality in China during 2004–2016: a new decomposition analysis

 MeanStandard deviation
OverallBetween-provinceWithin-province
(1)(2)(3)(4)
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)29.83(38.37)(34.22)(18.33)
GDP per capita (RMB)34,086.08(22,754.69)(17,085.12)(15,316.27)
Socioeconomic condition
 Average annual household consumption (RMB)11,918.68(8083.85)(5931.95)(5586.68)
 Proportion of illiteracy (%)7.90(6.62)(6.36)(2.14)
 Proportion of college educated (%)9.99(6.50)(5.85)(3.01)
Health resource allocation
 Public budget in health sector per capita (RMB)495.19(375.44)(187.95)(326.62)
 Density of health providers in specialized maternal and child health hospitals (per 10,000 population)1.57(0.60)(0.46)(0.40)
 Density of specialized maternal and child health hospitals (per 1,000,000 population)3.05(3.03)(3.06)(0.29)
 Density of bedsize in maternal and child health hospitals (per 100,000 population)10.14(5.08)(3.37)(3.85)
Access to health care
 Maternity health insurance coverage (%)49.32(14.73)(9.81)(11.11)
 Premarital check-up (%)27.46(30.53)(17.00)(25.53)
 Maternal health profiles creation rate (%)91.67(8.53)(6.76)(5.32)
 Coverage of maternal systematic management (%)82.29(14.34)(11.50)(8.79)
 Prenatal check-up (%)92.51(7.19)(5.79)(4.37)
 Postpartum visit rate (%)89.26(9.56)(7.89)(5.57)
 Hospital delivery rate (%)93.93(11.34)(8.03)(8.14)
 Delivery attended by professionals rate (%)98.47(4.07)(3.18)(2.59)
Observations403   
  1. Notes: Data source is various issues of China Health Statistics Yearbook, China Statistics Yearbook and China Population, and Employment Statistics Yearbook. The sample consists of all 31 provinces in mainland China over 13 years from 2004 to 2016. Sample means, overall standard deviations, between- and within-province deviations (in parentheses) are reported. RMB refers to Renminbi, which is the monetary unit in China
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