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Table 1 Weight status by socio-demographic, occupational and health-related characteristics, among men and women in a representative sample of 8000 Italian workers

From: Gender differences and occupational factors for the risk of obesity in the Italian working population

 MalesFemales
No.Mean BMI (sd)OverweightObeseNo.Mean BMI (sd)OverweightObese
(%)(%)(%)(%)
Age group
 16–2424325.4 (3.8) a38.35.818222.3 (3.4) a18.11.6
 25–3489725.8 (2.9) ab48.67.675223.0 (3.9) b20.93.9
 35–44132826.3 (3.2) bc51.210.0116323.3 (3.8) bc19.05.9
 45–54125626.7 (3.3) c52.512.7110524.0 (4.0) cd23.98.1
 55–6458127.2 (3.8) d59.715.049324.5 (3.7) d31.06.9
Education
 Lower or middle school155826.7 (3.3) c55.112.590424.4 (4.1) c29.28.5
 High school203926.3 (3.3) b50.610.688923.4 (3.8) b19.73.5
 University graduate and post-graduate64825.8 (2.9) a47.14.7364722.9 (3.4) a22.66.1
Occupational sector
 Agriculture, fishing, and hunting13126.5 (3.1) ab52.712.25525.0 (4.4) b36.47.3
 Manufacturing/Primary industry/Mining/ Utilities135626.4 (3.3) ab50.711.250023.3 (3.6) a20.05.4
 Construction40926.3 (2.9) ab54.19.03523.1 (3.9) a8.68.6
 Wholesale and retail trade/ Automotive and motorcycle repair/ Accommodation and food services69526.2 (3.3) a49.29.471923.5 (4.5) a23.45.7
 Transportation and warehousing / Information and communication47726.3 (3.3) ab51.410.515723.7 (3.9) ab21.77.0
 Professional, financial and business services42126.1 (3.1) a50.89.051623.2 (3.6) a19.84.8
 Healthcare and social assistance19427.1 (4.7) b56.216.050523.8 (3.9) ab21.88.5
 Education services/ Public administration, social security46326.6 (3.3) ab52.312.173123.6 (3.6) ab22.35.6
 Other public and personal services15926.3 (2.9) ab54.110.747923.9 (3.7) ab26.76.3
Occupational position
 Top and middle manager43026.1 (3.3)50.28.128423.2 (3.2) a22.23.9
 White collar134226.3 (3.4)51.410.3193623.3 (3.6) a20.25.0
 Blue collar240626.5 (3.3)52.111.5133924.1 (4.3) b25.58.0
 Apprentice or other type of employment12726.1 (3.5)44.111.013823.5 (3.8) ab23.97.2
Type of contract
 Permanent368326.4 (3.2)52.810.8306123.6 (3.9)21.36.5
 Temporary59726.2 (3.8)43.910.461123.5 (3.6)28.23.8
Shift work
 Yes139726.5 (3.4)51.411.7127823.8 (4.1) f24.67.7
 No290826.3 (3.3)51.510.3241823.5 (3.8) f21.35.2
Night shifts
 Never383726.3 (3.2)51.010.6348623.5 (3.9)22.15.9
 1 to 2 times/wk26726.7 (4.1)58.410.514524.3 (4.5)24.110.3
  > 2 times/wk20026.9 (3.6)51.513.56424.1 (3.4)35.93.1
Working hours
 1–34 h/wk45426.7 (3.7) b5013.0140523.5 (3.7)22.55.3
 35–40 h/wk302426.4 (3.3) ab51.810.7201323.7 (4.0)22.06.9
 41–48 h/wk49226.3 (3.1) ab52.410.618423.2 (3.5)26.13.3
 49–54 h/wk20225.9 (2.7) a49.56.45923.2 (3.5)25.91.7
  > =55 h h/wk13426.3 (3.2) ab47.811.93423.8 (4.5)17.68.8
Firm size (no. of employees)
 1–965126.2 (3.3)47.310.866523.2 (3.7)23.34.4
 10–4988726.2 (3.0)54.08.872723.6 (3.8)22.15.8
 50–24989226.4 (3.4)51.811.379623.9 (3.9)25.47.0
  ≥ 250170626.5 (3.2)52.811.6131323.5 (3.8)20.96.7
Health surveillance
 Yes320126.4 (3.3)52.511.0221923.6 (3.9) f21.96.9
 No32226.5 (3.9)45.312.740823.2 (4.0) f19.64.9
Exposure to work-related stress risk
 No251426.3 (3.3)51.410.6192223.5 (3.7)22.65.6
 Yes179226.4 (3.3)51.611.0177423.6 (4.0)22.36,6
Exposure to VDT
 Yes47326.4 (3.5)55.210,431923.1 (3.6) f17.24,7
 No383226.4 (3.3)51.010,8337623.6 (3.9) f22.96,2
Musculoskeletal diseases
 No156725.9 (2.9) g47.58.298623.0 (3.7) g18.73.3
 Yes273426.6 (3.5) g53.712.2270523.8 (3.9) g23.87.1
Respiratory diseases
 No403826.3 (3.3) g51.510.2334723.5 (3.8) g22.65.3
 Yes26627.4 (4.1) g51.119.234424.4 (4.4) g20.613.7
Gastrointestinal diseases
 No341426.4 (3.2)52.310.6260423.5 (3.8)22.85.8
 Yes88726.4 (3.8)48.611.3108423.6 (4.1)21.66.5
Cardiovascular diseases
 No401226.2 (3.2) g50.99.9340923.4 (3.8) g21.95.5
 Yes29228.1 (4.2) g58.622.628025.2 (4.6) g29.313.2
Insomnia
 No337326.3 (3.1) g51.510.2261123.5 (3.9)22.45.8
 Yes93226.6 (4.0) g51.312.9108023.7 (3.9)22.56.7
  1. Note: mean BMI for men is 26.4 (3.3); mean BMI for women 23.6 (3.9) (p < 0.05). a, b, c, d Tukey’s honestly significant difference test; e video display terminal; fp < 0.05; gp < 0.01