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Table 4 The results obtained from exploratory factor analysis for the HELIA

From: Development and validation of a short and easy-to-use instrument for measuring health literacy: the Health Literacy Instrument for Adults (HELIA)

ItemF1F 2F 3F 4F 5
Reading educational materials about health (booklets, pamphlets, leaflets) is easy for me.0.1720.0610.2010.1630.656
Reading written instructions from doctors, dentists and health workers about my illness is easy for me.0.1480.1540.2870.0860.551
Reading medical and dental forms (such as admissions, consent, filing, etc. in hospitals and medical centers) is easy for me.0.0690.3070.2170.0100.700
Reading leaflets and instructions for laboratory testing, ultrasound or radiology is easy for me.0.1680.1860.0770.1170.701
I can find health information from different sources when I need such information.0.0350.1210.6410.1250.244
I can find health information about healthy eating.0.1250.1370.6830.2180.159
I can find health information on mental health such as depression and stress.0.0900.0720.7540.1120.044
I can find health information about a specific disease when I need to.0.1560.2580.691(0.058)0.053
I can find health information for some health problems and diseases such as high blood pressure, high blood sugar and high lipid levels.0.2040.1970.5570.0790.241
I can find health information about harmful effects of tobacco and smoking.0.1910.0600.4450.2540.204
I can understand the recommendations for a healthy diet.0.2950.5870.2300.2070.097
I can understand when my physician explains about my illness.0.1720.7260.1290.1820.048
I can understand the meaning when reading medical forms (such as admissions, consents, filings, etc.) in hospitals and health centers.0.1520.6160.1700.1470.314
I can understand signage guidelines in hospitals, clinics and health centers.0.2010.5740.0690.2270.308
I can understand drug information on labels.0.2390.6980.1140.1630.122
I can understand the risks, and benefits of drugs prescribed by my physician.0.2040.7430.1830.1100.035
I can understand written information before testing, ultrasound or radiology.0.1500.6270.1580.1100.255
I can evaluate health-related information on the Internet.0.1270.1360.1850.6030.105
I can evaluate health-related information broadcast on television and radio.0.2510.1920.1140.7640.104
I can assess the accuracy of health-related recommendations I receive from relatives and friends.0.2380.2760.1980.6800.057
I can communicate trusted health information to others.0.2530.3030.0790.5870.175
When facing an illness, I know where to go or with whometo speak.0.5100.2300.3330.0440.036
When physician suggests that I should take antibiotic capsules three times a day I know that I should take one tablet every 8 h.0.5790.2440.1080.2160.099
I do not cut my medications without my physician’s permission, even if symptoms disappear.0.6660.1170.176(0.005)0.064
If anyone from my first-degree relatives develops cancer (such as prostate, breast, cervix, colon, etc.), I see a doctor to examine me.0.6650.020(0.018)0.2120.129
I avoid doing or eating things that increase my blood pressure.0.6440.2130.0970.1900.069
I visit my physician for regular checkups.0.698(0.063)0.1450.1160.139
I am health-conscious in any situation.0.6510.1210.0680.1390.056
If needed, I ask my physician or health care team questions about my disease.0.5900.3380.1180.1420.075
I buy dairy products (milk, yoghurt, cheese, etc.) according to their fat percentage.0.6370.2350.155(0.065)0.085
I avoid using substances that increase my weight.0.6200.1570.0580.0430.193
I use a seat belt when driving.0.6080.2890.0510.3180.101
I consider the food labels when shopping.0.6490.1800.0840.2760.046
Eigenvalue5.4504.0403.1132.5172.368
Explained Variance (%)16.51412.2439.4347.6277.176
Cumulative Variance (%)16.51428.75738.19245.81952.995
  1. Factor 1. Decision-making/ behavioral intention, Factor 2. Understanding, Factor 3. Access to information, Factor 4. Appraisal, Factor 5. Reading