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Table 3 Demographic characteristics of the study participants (n = 323)

From: Development and validation of a short and easy-to-use instrument for measuring health literacy: the Health Literacy Instrument for Adults (HELIA)

 AllMale (n = 147)Female (n = 176)
 No. (%)No. (%)No. (%)
Age groups
 18–30117 (36.2)54 (36.7)63 (35.8)
 31–4290 (27.9)38 (25.9)52 (29.5)
 43–5467 (20.7)30 (20.4)37 (21.0)
 55–6549 (15.2)25 (17.0)24 (13.6)
Education (years)
 1–965 (20.1)25 (17.0)40 (22.7)
 10–12133 (41.2)58 (39.5)75 (42.6)
  ≥ 13125 (38.7)64 (43.5)61 (34.7)
Occupation
 Employed101 (31.3)82 (55.8)19 (10.8)
 Student45 (13.9)25 (17.0)20 (11.4)
 Retired29 (9.0)21 (14.3)8 (4.5)
 Housewife125 (38.7)125 (71.0)
 Unemployed23 (7.1)19 (12.9)4 (2.3)
Source of health informationa
 TV/Radio173 (26.3)74(25.3)99(27.0)
 Physicians/Health providers161 (24.4)76(26.0)85(23.2)
 Newspapers/Journals93 (14.1)44(15.1)49(13.4)
 Friends, Relatives87 (13.2)39(13.4)48(13.1)
 Internet76 (11.5)36(12.3)40(10.9)
 Book/Booklets/Pamphlets45 (6.8)12(4.1)33(9.0)
 Interactive voice response (IVR)11 (1.7)5(1.7)6(1.6)
 No answer13 (2.0)6(2.1)7 (1.9)
  1. a Since the respondents could indicate several sources the numbers exceed the total sample size