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Table 7 Comparison of knowledge about dietary supplements between pharmaceutical students and others

From: An educational intervention improved knowledge of dietary supplements in college students

  Pre-interventionPost-intervention 
 Strongly agree (%)Agree (%)Neither agree nor disagree (%)Disagree (%)Strongly disagree (%)Z scorep-valueaStrongly agree (%)Agree (%)Neither agree nor disagree (%)Disagree (%)Strongly disagree (%)Z scorep-valueap-valueb
Dietary supplements are safe, because they are just food items.Pharmaceutical1.632.130.431.04.9−2.0720.041.110.424.649.714.2−2.5810.01< 0.01
Others4.244.418.829.23.5  1.422.422.445.58.4  < 0.01
Dietary supplements made from natural ingredients or herbs are safe.Pharmaceutical0.640.432.221.94.9−2.4560.011.110.427.949.710.9−3.667< 0.01< 0.01
Others5.648.623.620.12.1  3.525.128.734.38.4  < 0.01
Food additives should be avoided.Pharmaceutical2.735.334.226.61.10.2430.816.636.632.821.92.21.3570.170.03
Others4.238.224.326.46.9  5.034.828.425.56.4  0.66
Dietary supplements made from food items are safe.Pharmaceutical1.644.031.521.21.6−0.8950.371.112.624.049.213.1−3.191< 0.01< 0.01
Others7.043.026.821.12.1  0.721.733.635.78.4  < 0.01
The efficacy of commercial dietary supplements is confirmed and reliable.Pharmaceutical1.615.236.439.77.1−0.7570.451.16.014.751.127.2−2.6460.01< 0.01
Others2.823.130.132.211.9  0.714.122.540.921.8  < 0.01
I want to use dietary supplements that have a good reputation.Pharmaceutical2.238.616.933.29.22.3100.021.68.218.547.823.91.0580.29< 0.01
Others4.922.921.531.918.8  1.49.217.039.732.6  < 0.01
Dietary supplements recommended by health professionals are effective.Pharmaceutical0.017.422.843.516.31.4810.140.54.910.953.829.90.0240.98< 0.01
Others2.114.022.443.529.4  1.46.315.540.935.9  < 0.01
Dietary supplements can be used concomitantly with medicines.Pharmaceutical0.56.013.642.937.0−3.174< 0.010.50.56.539.752.7−1.6540.10< 0.01
Others2.112.616.845.523.1  0.05.613.332.948.3  < 0.01
Dietary supplements can prevent diseases.Pharmaceutical0.528.326.134.810.31.2430.211.115.214.147.821.7−0.2280.82< 0.01
Others1.425.020.838.214.6  2.117.618.333.828.2  < 0.01
Dietary supplements can treat diseases.Pharmaceutical0.06.017.440.236.4−0.8910.370.03.36.541.348.9−2.0110.04< 0.01
Others0.77.019.639.932.9  0.02.817.538.541.3  < 0.01
Dietary supplements can compensate for an unbalanced diet.Pharmaceutical0.523.921.740.813.0−0.1500.881.112.119.844.023.1−0.4270.67< 0.01
Others3.524.319.436.116.7  0.715.521.138.024.7  < 0.01
Children who are picky eaters should take dietary supplements to supplement nutrition.Pharmaceutical1.112.016.947.322.80.4270.670.56.010.947.834.8−1.4450.15< 0.01
Others0.018.813.237.530.6  0.012.620.330.836.4  0.23
Pregnant women should take dietary supplements to supplement nutrition.Pharmaceutical1.611.525.746.514.8−3.724< 0.010.66.014.249.230.1−3.676< 0.01< 0.01
Others3.532.223.126.614.7  2.121.024.525.227.3  < 0.01
I want to use dietary supplements for weight loss or muscle building.Pharmaceutical4.422.817.934.820.11.3300.183.310.310.341.934.2−0.9880.32< 0.01
Others3.521.516.029.929.2  2.815.516.929.635.2  < 0.01
  1. Pharmaceutical: n = 184, Others: n = 144
  2. Statistics analyses were conducted abetween pharmaceutical students and other students or bbetween pre- and post-intervention stages
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