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Table 4 Results of multivariable linear regression analysis for under-five child height-for-age z-scores

From: Simultaneous quantile regression and determinants of under-five severe chronic malnutrition in Ghana

Variables β 95% CI p-value
Child characteristics
Type of birth`
  Single ref   
  Multiple −0.640 (−0.858, − 0.422) < 0.001***
Sex
  Male ref   
  Female 0.136 (0.046, 0.225) 0.013**
Age (months) −0.019 (−0.022, − 0.017) < 0.001***
Had diarrhoea
  No ref   
  Yes −0.199 (− 0.337, − 0.061) 0.005**
Place of delivery
  Health facility ref   
  Home −0.182 (−0.290, − 0.074) 0.001**
Size at birth
  Large/average ref   
 Small −0.405 (− 0.527, − 0.283) < 0.001***
Maternal/Household    
Maternal age 0.023 (0.014, 0.031) < 0.001***
Children < 5 years −0.251 (− 0.373, − 0.129) < 0.001***
Health insurance
  Had no health insurance ref   
  Had health insurance 0.243 (0.143, 0.343) < 0.001***
Wealth status
  Average/ rich ref   
  Poor −0.289 (−0.394, − 0.184) < 0.001***
Maternal education
  Primary/higher ref   
  No formal education −0.131 (− 0.237, − 0.024) 0.016***
  1. β: coefficient of parameter. CI: confidence interval. *: p-value < 0.05. **: p-value< 0.01. ***: p-value < 0.001. ref.: reference category
  2. Note: The DHS categorises the wealth index as poorest, poor, middle, richer and richest. However, in this work, we combined poorest and poorer as poor. Also, middle, richer and richest were combined as average/rich. Similar recoding was done for size at birth, place of delivery and maternal education