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Table 1 Characteristics of WIC participating children in Los Angeles County, California (N = 148,634)

From: The neighborhood food environment modifies the effect of the 2009 WIC food package change on childhood obesity in Los Angeles County, California

Individual CharacteristicsBoysGirls
Old Package
N = 43,546
New Package
N = 32,195
Old Package
N = 41,686
New Package
N = 31,207
Initial WHZa, mean ± SD0.49 ± 1.510.37 ± 1.630.47 ± 1.860.37 ± 1.52
Age (y) at initial WHZ, mean ± SD0.30 ± 0.350.27 ± 0.320.30 ± 0.350.28 ± 0.32
Obese at age 4 (y), n (%)9098 (20.89)5835 (18.12)7250 (17.39)5092 (16.32)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 Asian1646 (3.79)946 (2.94)1538 (3.70)903 (2.89)
 African American2003 (4.62)1575 (4.89)1857 (4.47)1573 (5.04)
 Hispanic38,473 (88.67)28,396 (88.21)36,976 (89.03)27,504 (88.15)
 White1218 (2.81)738 (2.29)1113 (2.68)674 (2.16)
 Other51 (0.12)535 (1.66)46 (0.11)547 (1.75)
Language Preference, n (%)
 English13,887 (31.89)15,703 (48.77)13,431 (32.22)15,084 (48.34)
 Spanish28,539 (65.54)15,770 (48.98)27,279 (65.44)15,456 (49.53)
 Other1120 (2.57)722 (2.24)976 (2.34)667 (2.14)
Maternal Education, n (%)
  < HS degree27,250 (62.58)16,300 (50.63)26,161 (62.76)15,885 (50.90)
 HS degree12,265 (28.17)11,481 (35.66)11,720 (28.11)11,020 (35.31)
  > HS degree4031 (9.26)4414 (13.71)3805 (9.13)4302 (13.79)
Household Income, n (%)
  < 50% FPL8237 (18.92)9121 (28.33)8073 (19.37)8730 (27.97)
 50–100% FPL21,544 (49.47)15,471 (48.05)20,558 (49.32)15,164 (48.59)
  > 100% FPL13,765 (31.61)7603 (23.62)13,055 (31.32)7313 (23.43)
Neighborhood Characteristicsb
 Healthy outletsc per sq. mi, mean ± SD3.33 ± 2.542.99 ± 2.393.33 ± 2.542.97 ± 2.39
 Unhealthy outletsd per sq. mi, mean ± SD9.97 ± 6.509.46 ± 5.739.97 ± 6.479.41 ± 5.69
 Poverty percent, mean ± SD22.60 ± 11.1725.93 ± 11.5522.65 ± 11.1525.92 ± 11.63
 Minority percent, mean ± SD89.56 ± 14.0289.66 ± 13.7389.54 ± 14.0189.63 ± 13.84
 HS grad percent, mean ± SD58.54 ± 15.7462.04 ± 15.3658.52 ± 15.7062.07 ± 15.42
 Residents per sq. mi, mean ± SD18,297 ± 11,91017,922 ± 11,89418,295 ± 11,90717,836 ± 11,790
  1. FPL federal poverty level, HS high school, MI mile, SD standard deviation, SQ square, WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children, WHZ weight-for-height z-score, y years
  2. aInitial WHZ corresponds to the first length and weight measurement for each participant
  3. bNeighborhood was defined as the census tract of residence + a 0.5-mile buffer for food environment variables and as the census tract of residence for social environment variables
  4. cHealthy outlets included supermarkets, chain and independent grocery stores and fruit/vegetable vendors
  5. dUnhealthy outlets included fast food, liquor stores and chain and independent convenience stores