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Table 4 Combined effects of metabolic syndrome and SES (primarily education level and household income) for depression in male and female

From: The combined effect of socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome on depression: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

CharacteristicsMaleFemale
Model1aModel2bModel3cModel1aModel2bModel3c
OR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-valueOR (95% CI)p-value
Education level & Metabolic syndrome
College or more & No1.00<.00011.00<.00011.00<.00011.00<.00011.000.00011.000.02
College or more & Yes2.26 (0.76–6.74)2.18 (0.73–6.48)1.96 (0.66–5.83)3.40 (1.80–6.41)3.16 (1.63–6.13)2.55 (1.28–5.10)
High school & No2.41 (1.13–5.15)2.12 (1.01–4.49)2.13 (0.91–4.99)2.02 (1.45–2.81)1.69 (1.20–2.37)1.45 (0.10–2.10)
High school & Yes6.30 (2.61–15.21)4.90 (2.07–11.57)4.29 (1.75–10.53)4.00 (2.51–6.38)2.96 (1.78–4.91)2.53 (1.43–4.48)
Middle schools & No9.23 (3.63–23.46)6.31 (2.62–15.23)8.43 (3.25–21.84)4.14 (2.56–6.71)2.80 (1.70–4.61)2.39 (1.35–4.23)
Middle schools & Yes10.11 (3.52–29.04)6.98 (2.30–21.12)11.84 (3.62–38.68)3.82 (2.00–7.30)2.46 (1.20–5.08)2.45 (1.21–4.96)
Elementary school or less & No25.31 (10.79–59.40)15.60 (6.59–36.90)13.87 (5.22–36.84)5.25 (3.25–8.49)3.16 (1.88–5.30)2.31 (1.25–4.28)
Elementary school or less & Yes19.81 (7.44–52.74)13.97 (5.10–38.25)14.74 (4.69–46.28)5.28 (3.15–8.84)2.74 (1.54–4.83)2.81 (1.52–5.22)
Household income & Metabolic syndrome
Higha No1.00<.00011.000.0011.000.0011.00<.00011.00<.00011.00<.0001
Higha Yes1.10 (0.41–2.96)1.27 (0.47–3.44)0.91 (0.34–2.45)2.69 (1.55–4.67)2.36 (1.34–4.15)2.30 (1.22–4.34)
Middlea No1.24 (0.67–2.29)0.87 (0.46–1.63)0.67 (0.31–1.43)2.09 (1.54–2.83)1.71 (1.25–2.33)1.91 (1.33–2.74)
Middlea Yes2.14 (1.07–4.29)1.54 (0.72–3.29)1.60 (0.66–3.88)3.02 (2.02–4.50)2.16 (1.94–3.36)2.69 (1.64–4.41)
Lowa No6.70 (3.49–12.84)2.81 (1.45–5.45)2.62 (1.22–5.63)4.22 (2.85–6.23)2.67 (1.76–4.05)2.94 (1.77–4.87)
Lowa Yes8.85 (3.96–19.78)3.48 (1.43–8.43)3.01 (1.13–8.01)5.93 (3.54–9.91)3.13 (1.82–5.39)4.05 (2.18–7.53)
  1. aModel1: adjusted for age
  2. bModel2: adjusted for age, education level, income, marital status, moderate physical activity more than, smoking status, alcohol consumption, prevalence of chronic diseases
  3. cModel3: adjusted for age, education level, income, marital status, moderate physical activity more than, smoking status, alcohol consumption, prevalence of chronic diseases, history of depression
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