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Table 2 Odds ratios for being depression by metabolic syndrome and each of its components and SES (primarily education level and household income)

From: The combined effect of socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome on depression: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES)

CharacteristicsModel1aModel2bModel3c
OR(95% CI)p-valueOR(95% CI)p-valueOR(95% CI)p-value
Waist circumference (cm)
  < 90 (< 80 for women)1.000.00021.000.181.000.10
  ≥ 90 (≥80 for women)1.49 (1.21–1.82)1.21 (0.92–1.60)1.30 (0.95–1.78)
Triglyceride level (mg/dL)
  < 1501.00<.00011.000.021.000.09
  ≥ 1501.61 (1.27–.2.03)1.35 (1.06–1.71)1.26 (0.97–1.65)
Blood pressurea
 Normal1.000.421.000.131.000.32
 Abnormal0.90 (0.70–1.16)0.82 (0.63–1.06)0.87 (0.65–1.15)
HDL cholesterol level (mg/dL)
  ≥ 40 (≥50 for women)1.00<.00011.000.0031.000.0004
  < 40 (< 50 for women)1.52 (1.25–.1.86)1.40 (1.12–1.74)1.55 (1.22–1.99)
FBS (mg/dL)
  < 1001.000.011.000.111.000.09
  ≥ 1001.36 (1.07–1.73)1.23 (0.95–1.58)1.26 (0.96–1.65)
Metabolic syndrome
 No1.00<.00011.000.021.000.003
 Yes1.65 (1.30–2.09)1.34 (1.05–1.72)1.51 (1.15–1.98)
Education level
 College or more1.00<.00011.00<.00011.00<.0001
 High school2.10 (1.60–2.79)1.77 (1.34–2.33)1.52 (1.13–2.06)
 Middle schools4.02 (2.76–5.87)2.86 (1.93–4.24)2.73 (1.79–4.15)
 Elementary school or less6.20 (4.26–9.02)3.72 (2.49–5.54)3.16 (2.06–4.85)
House income
 High1.00<.00011.00<.00011.00<.0001
 Middle1.73 (1.35–2.23)1.33 (1.02–1.72)1.45 (1.09–1.94)
 Low4.66 (3.42–6.36)2.54 (1.84–3.51)2.95 (2.05–4.24)
  1. aModel1: adjusted for age
  2. bModel2: adjusted for age, education level, income, marital status, moderate physical activity more than, smoking status, alcohol consumption, prevalence of chronic diseases
  3. cModel3: adjusted for age, education level, income, marital status, moderate physical activity more than, smoking status, alcohol consumption, prevalence of chronic diseases, history of depression
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