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Table 3 Number of studies addressing Integrated Behavior Model (IBM) constructs to increase uptake of cervical screening

From: Interventions to increase uptake of cervical screening in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review using the integrated behavioral model

  The IBM construct was considered   
IBM construct During intervention development As target of intervention As a measure/ outcome Total number of studies addressing construct
N (%)
Studies and description of how construct was considered
Attitude
 Experiential 4 3 3 6 (31.6%) Studies assessed attitudes and beliefs about cancer and screening and cited attitudes of health workers as a barrier to screening.
Huchko 2018 [23], Mbachu 2017 [25], Modibbo 2017 [27], Moses 2015 [28], Okeke 2013 [30], Risi 2004 [31]
 Instrumental 5 6 3 7 (36.8%) Studies assessed perceptions of screening benefits, individual risk, and severity of cervical cancer. Motivational interviewing and incentivization interventions were used to overcome perceived barriers or increase perceived benefit.
Adamu 2012 [15], Adonis 2014 [17], Hewett 2016 [22], Mbachu 2017 [25], Mehrotra 2014 [26], Okeke 2013 [30], Rosser 2015 [32]
Perceived norm
 Injunctive 2 4 0 4 (21.1%) Community health workers, peer educators, and personal escorts used to social influence to promote positive attitudes of screening.
Chigbu 2017 [18], Hewett 2016 [22], Lafort 2018 [24], Mbachu 2017 [25]
 Descriptive 1 3 1 4 (21.1%) Culturally-relevant media and peer programs modeled screening behavior.
Abiodun 2014 [15], Huchko 2018 [23], Lafort 2018 [24], Risi 2004 [31]
Personal agency
 Perceived control 0 0 5 5 (26.3%) Barriers to screening were assessed.
Abiodun 2014 [15], Adamu 2012 [16], Mbachu 2017 [25], Ndikom 2017 [29], Wright 2011 [33]
 Self-efficacy 2 2 0 2 (10.5%) Motivational interviewing and screening demonstrations gave women confidence in their ability to screen and overcome identified barriers.
Adamu 2012 [16], Hewett 2016 [22]
Knowledge and skills to perform 8 12 6 13 (68.4%) Poor knowledge/awareness was cited as a major barrier to screening. Interventions used education to increase knowledge of cervical cancer, screening, and availability of screening services.
Abiodun 2014 [15], Adamu 2012 [16], Adonis 2017 [17], Chigbu 2017 [18], Dreyer 2015 [19], Erwin 2019 [20], Gana 2017 [21], Mbachu 2017 [25], Ndikom 2017 [29], Okeke 2013 [30], Risi 2004 31], Rosser 2015 [32], Wright 2011 [33]
Environmental constraints 7 10 2 10 (52.6%) Availability and accessibility of services were enhanced with free screening, transportation vouchers, and community-based screening. Studies measured type of transportation and distance to facility.
Adamu 2012 [16], Dreyer 2015 [19], Erwin 2019 [20], Hewett 2016 [22], Huchko 2018 [23], Lafort 2018 [24], Modibbo 2017 [27], Moses 2015 [28], Okeke 2013 [30], Risi 2004 [31]
Habit 0 0 0 0 (0%) Studies did not address habitual screening behavior.
Salience of behavior 0 0 2 2 (10.5) Studies asked women if they would test again in the future and what their future screening preferences were.
Huchko 2018 [23], Modibbo 2017 [27]
Intention to perform 1 0 4 4 (21.1%) Intention was measured as “willingness to screen” among participants.
Abiodun 2014 15], Mbachu 2017 [25], Ndikom 2017 [29], Wright 2011 [33]
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