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Table 2 Population attributable fractions for selected environmental carcinogens in Ontario, Canada

From: An approach to estimating the environmental burden of cancer from known and probable carcinogens: application to Ontario, Canada

Carcinogen Cancer site evaluated Mean PAF % (5th, 95th PCT)f
Lung 5.8 (3.0, 9.4)
Radonb Lung 13.6 (11.2, 16.0)
Second-hand smokec Lung 0.6 (0.1, 1.3)
Solar UV radiationd Skine 79.7 (65.6, 93.8)
  1. Abbreviations: 5th 95th PCT, 5th and 95th percentile estimates, DPM diesel particulate matter, NA not available, PAF population attributable fraction, PM2.5 fine particulate matter, UV ultraviolet
  2. aDPM was treated as a sub-exposure of PM2.5
  3. bThe radon PAF accounted for the different risks associated with ever-smokers and never-smokers
  4. cRelative risks were for never-smokers exposed to second-hand smoke in their homes; PAF accounted for the different risks associated with females and males
  5. dTwo methods were used to estimate attributable melanoma cases and an uniform distribution was fit using the estimates as the lower and upper bounds
  6. eOnly includes melanoma skin cancer
  7. fSee Additional file 4 for more information