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Table 4 Multinomial odds ratios of associated post-disaster lifestyle factors with prevalent and exacerbated musculoskeletal pain

From: Lifestyle factors associated with prevalent and exacerbated musculoskeletal pain after the Great East Japan Earthquake: a cross-sectional study from the Fukushima Health Management Survey

 CrudeMultivariable adjusted odds ratios1Multivariable adjusted odds ratios2
PrevalentExacerbatedPrevalentExacerbatedPrevalentExacerbated
Shelter use
 Yes1.28, 1.22–1.352.04, 1.85–2.251.11, 1.05–1.171.57, 1.42–1.741.02, 0.96–1.081.44, 1.29–1.60
Job loss
 Yes1.28, 1.22–1.371.92, 1.73–2.131.19, 1.12–1/271.57, 1.40–1.761.03, 0.96–1.101.30, 1.16–1.47
Decreased income
 Yes1.19, 1.12–1.261.40, 1.25–1.571.18, 1.11–1.261.36, 1.21–1.541.13, 1.05–1.211.29, 1.14–1.45
Smoking status
 Past1.00, 0.94–1.060.83, 0.73–0.931.15, 1.07–1.241.14, 0.98–1.331.04, 0.96–1.121.02, 0.87–1.19
 Current light smoking0.91, 0.84–0.990.73, 0.61–0.881.10, 1.00–1.210.99, 0.82–1.201.00, 0.91–1.110.85, 0.70–1.04
 Current heavy smoking0.94, 0.86–1.020.86, 0.73–1.021.15, 1.04–1.271.25, 1.02–1.521.06, 0.95–1.181.11, 0.90–1.36
Drinking status
 Past1.19, 1.04–1.351.20, 0.93–1.541.21, 1.05–1.391.37, 1.04–1.370.98, 0.84–1.141.05, 0.79–1.39
 Current light drinking0.90, 0.85–0.940.85, 0.77–0.941.05, 0.99–1.111.08, 0.96–1.221.08, 1.01–1.151.11, 0.98–1.25
 Current heavy drinking0.95, 0.88–1.030.94, 0.80–1.111.26, 1.15–1.381.29, 1.07–1.561.33, 1.21–1.471.38, 1.14–1.68
Insomnia
 Yes2.16, 2.05–2.263.22, 2.94–3.532.10, 2.00–2.212.96, 2.70–3.251.22, 1.15–1.291.50, 1.36–1.65
Regular exercise
 1 time per week0.95, 0.89–1.020.86, 0.74–0.990.91, 0.85–0.980.83, 0.71–0.970.94, 0.87–1.020.86, 0.73–1.00
 2–4 times per week0.98, 0.92–1.041.02, 0.91–1.150.89, 0.83–0.950.92, 0.81–1.050.92, 0.86–0.990.96, 0.84–1.10
 Almost daily0.79, 0.73–0.840.71, 0.61–0.820.74, 0.69–0.800.71, 0.60–0.830.83, 0.77–0.910.80, 0.68–0.95
Community activities
 Sometimes0.77, 0.73–0.820.65, 0.58–0.730.81, 0.77–0.860.72, 0.64–0.810.93, 0.88–0.990.86, 0.76–0.98
 Often0.60, 0.55–0.650.44, 0.36–0.540.66, 0.60–0.720.54, 0.44–0.670.83, 0.75–0.920.76, 0.61–0.95
  1. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were shown. Bolded numbers mean significant association (p < 0.05). For each factor, the following categories were used as a reference category: ‘no’ for shelter use, job loss, decreased income, and insomnia; ‘never’ for smoking and drinking status; ‘almost not’ for regular exercise; and ‘never or rarely’ for community activities
  2. 1Adjustment for background information (age, sex, history of hypertension/diabetes/dyslipidemia, and educational status) and disaster experience (tsunami/indirect nuclear power plant accident, house damage, loss of close person) and each lifestyle factors; 2Further adjustment for psychological factors (traumatic reaction and psychological distress) and the number of uncomfortable symptoms (none, one, and two or more)
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