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Table 3 Associated psychological factors with prevalent and exacerbated musculoskeletal pain

From: Lifestyle factors associated with prevalent and exacerbated musculoskeletal pain after the Great East Japan Earthquake: a cross-sectional study from the Fukushima Health Management Survey

 Musculoskeletal pain
AbsentPrevalentExacerbated
Traumatic reaction (PCL)
 Normal20,196 (86.1)6643 (68.8)a1000 (55.2)ab
 44 points or over3260 (13.9)3007 (31.2)a813 (44.8)ab
Psychological distress (K6)
 Normal21,345 (91.0)7561 (88.4)a1223 (67.5)ab
 13 points or over2111 (9.0)2089 (21.6)a590 (32.5)ab
Uncomfortable symptoms
 Diarrhea/constipation2221 (9.5)2881 (29.9)a689 (38.0)ab
 Headache2078 (8.9)3060 (31.7)a706 (38.9)ab
 Dizziness1329 (5.7)1950 (20.2)a448 (24.7)ab
 Breathing trouble1034 (4.4)1792 (18.6)a407 (22.4)ab
 Palpitations1043 (4.4)1656 (17.2)a416 (22.9)ab
 Poor appetite476 (2.0)793 (8.2)a234 (12.9)ab
 Difficulty urinating281 (1.2)515 (5.3)a140 (7.7)a
Number of uncomfortable symptoms
 None17,985 (76.7)3149 (32.6)a439 (24.2)ab
 One2889 (12.3)2599 (26.9)a471 (26.0)ab
 Two or more2582 (11.0)3902 (40.4)a903 (49.8)ab
  1. Percentages are shown in parentheses. Statistically significant and observed ±3% or more difference compared to the Absent group (a), and to the Prevalent group (b); The total percentage does not always add up to 100; PCL, post-traumatic stress disorder check list; K6, Kessler psychological distress scale
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