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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of ICCU admission

From: Association of fine particulate matter exposure with acute noncardiovascular critical illnesses and in-hospital outcomes in patients receiving intensive cardiac care

 The 2-day average concentration of PM2.5 before ICCU admission 
Characteristic≤36 μg/m337-63 μg/m3≥64 μg/m3P value
(N = 804)(N = 773)(N = 760)
Age, yrs65.9 ± 14.064.9 ± 14.665.8 ± 13.90.316
Age ≥ 65 yrs473(58.8)434(56.1)446(58.7)0.938
Male, n (%)558(69.4)531(68.7)500(65.8)0.128
Source of admission, n (%)
 Department of Emergency503(62.6)536(69.3)565(74.3)< 0.001
 General Ward of Cardiology254(31.6)201(26.0)165(21.7)< 0.001
 Other Departments47(5.8)36(4.7)30(3.9)0.080
Type of admission, n (%)
 Medical176(21.9)164(21.2)178(23.4)0.474
 Scheduled procedure424(52.7)367(47.5)292(38.4)< 0.001
 Unscheduled procedure204(25.4)242(31.3)290(38.2)< 0.001
Vital signs
 Temperature, °C36.4 ± 0.836.4 ± 0.736.2 ± 2.70.208
 Respiratory rate, per min20.4 ± 3.520.3 ± 3.120.2 ± 4.50.745
 Heart rates, beats/min79.3 ± 21.579.8 ± 20.580.6 ± 22.40.467
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg125.7 ± 45.0124.0 ± 42.5125.5 ± 45.80.717
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg72.6 ± 15.872.7 ± 15.872.6 ± 17.40.988
Charlson Comorbidity Index2.3 ± 1.82.3 ± 1.92.4 ± 1.90.198
Oxford Acute Severity of Illness Score21.5 ± 9.822.4 ± 10.723.7 ± 10.7< 0.001
Cardiovascular comorbidities, n (%)
Ischemic heart disease578(71.9)587(75.9)548(72.1)0.898
 ACS434(54.0)468(60.5)469(61.7)0.002
  STEMI214(26.6)264(34.2)270(35.5)< 0.001
  NSTEMI114(14.2)123(15.9)120(15.8)0.371
  UA106(13.2)81(10.5)79(10.4)0.080
 SIHD137(17.0)112(14.5)75(9.9)< 0.001
 MI mechanical complications14(1.7)10(1.3)13(1.7)0.951
Hypertension432(53.7)391(50.6)388(51.1)0.283
Myocardial disease70(8.7)65(8.4)64(8.4)0.838
Valvar heart disease298(37.1)285(36.9)268(35.3)0.463
Heart failure472(58.7)458(59.2)460(60.5)0.465
NYHA functional classification
 I260(32.3)250(32.3)266(35.0)0.268
 II-III291(36.2)266(34.4)264(34.7)0.541
 IV167(20.8)179(23.2)180(23.7)0.166
Cardiac shock53(6.6)64(8.3)59(7.8)0.372
Cardiac arrest45(5.6)52(6.7)67(8.8)0.013
Atrial arrhythmia140(17.4)130(16.8)142(18.7)0.517
Ventricular arrhythmia63(7.8)45(5.8)51(6.7)0.366
Bradycardia92(11.4)90(11.6)68(8.9)0.114
Congenital heart disease13(1.6)13(1.7)14(1.8)0.733
Pericardial disease10(1.2)9(1.2)8(1.1)0.724
Aortic disease6(0.7)13(1.7)14(1.8)0.065
 Acute aortic syndrome2(0.2)3(0.4)6(0.8)0.120
Cerebrovascular disease75(9.3)55(7.1)78(10.3)0.539
 Acute stroke/TIA9(1.1)5(0.6)12(1.6)0.400
Peripheral arterial disease18(2.2)14(1.8)18(2.4)0.869
Venous thromboembolism11(1.4)7(0.9)11(1.4)0.901
Noncardiovascular comorbidities, n (%)
Tobacco abuse279(34.7)275(35.6)245(32.2)0.312
Alcohol abuse56(7.0)70(9.1)57(7.5)0.676
Diabetes mellitus237(29.5)210(27.2)212(27.9)0.479
Chronic kidney disease155(19.3)127(16.4)153(20.1)0.688
Hypercholesterolemia118(14.7)122(15.8)139(18.3)0.054
Chronic lung disease120(14.9)102(13.2)101(13.3)0.344
Malignancy30(3.7)25(3.2)23(3.0)0.436
Thyroid Disease17(2.1)8(1.0)20(2.6)0.479
Connective tissue disease7(0.9)9(1.2)10(1.3)0.400
Gout23(2.9)29(3.8)19(2.5)0.695
Moderate/severe anemia76(9.5)67(8.7)75(10.0)0.802
Hepatic dysfunction56(7.0)75(9.7)70(9.2)0.109
Dyskalemia216(26.9)232(30.0)228(30.0)0.168
Pneumonia/LRTI214(26.6)217(28.1)231(30.4)0.908
Major acute nonCV critical illnesses147(18.3)168(21.7)193(25.4)0.001
 Acute respiratory failure95(11.8)114(14.7)133(17.5)0.001
 Acute kidney injury96(11.9)107(13.8)118(15.5)0.039
 Sepsis29(3.6)31(4.0)38(5.0)0.171
 Gastrointestinal hemorrhage22(2.7)24(3.1)32(4.2)0.106
  1. Data are expressed as means ± standard variation or counts and percentage, as appropriate
  2. Abbreviation: PM2.5 particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, ACS acute coronary syndrome, STEMI ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, NSTEMI non-ST-segment elevation myocardial elevation, UA unstable angina, SIHD stable ischemic heart disease, MI myocardial infarction, TIA transient ischemic attack, CV cardiovascular, LRTI low respiratory tract infection