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Table 1 Statistics of ZIP Code-Level Social Determinants of Health

From: Incorporating machine learning and social determinants of health indicators into prospective risk adjustment for health plan payments

SDH VariableMean [Median] (Std)
Median Income in the Past 12 Months, $26,546 [25727] (6230)
Families Under 0.5 Ratio of Income to Poverty Level in the Past 12 Months, %4.7 [4.3] (2.7)
Families Between 0.5 and 0.74 Ratio of Income to Poverty Level in the Past 12 Months, %3.2 [3.0] (1.7)
Families Between 0.75 and 0.99 Ratio of Income to Poverty Level in the Past 12 Months, %3.6 [3.4] (1.6)
Families Received Food Stamps/Snap in the Past 12 months, %14.2 [13.6] (6.6)
Population Unemployed, %5.4 [5.2] (1.9)
Gini Index of Income Inequality45.2 [45.1] (3.6)
Population Obtained High School Diploma, %43.0 [42.9] (4.8)
Population Obtained Bachelor’s Degree, %16.1 [15.2] (6.2)
Population Speak English Less than “Very Well”, %10.5 [5.6] (12.5)
Families with Single Parent, %22.9 [22.7] (6.2)
Population Without Health Insurance Coverage, %11.3 [10.6] (4.9)
Population African American, %9.9 [4.5] (13.5)
Population Asian, %2.9 [1.2] (4.7)
Population American Indian and Alaska Native, %1.5 [0.3] (6.4)
Population Hispanic or Latino, %11.9 [5.5] (15.8)
Population White, %71.8 [77.7] (22.3)
  1. SDH variables were obtained from the 2012–2016 American Community Survey 5-year estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau