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Table 2 Themes, categories, sub-categories, and codes related to the challenges and barriers of humanitarian aid management in 2017 Kermanshah Earthquake

From: Challenges and barriers of humanitarian aid management in 2017 Kermanshah earthquake: a qualitative study

ThemesCategoriesSub-categoriesExample of codes
Managerial barriersEducationPublic educationLack of education of humanitarian aids in the schools
Lack of education for managing the affected society
Lack of familiarity with the involved organizations in humanitarian aids
Organizational educationInappropriate education and management of the enthusiastic persons
Insufficient knowledge about the ways of assisting
Inappropriate education and management of the local trustees
Lack of enough education of the volunteers
Command and CoordinationIncident Command SystemSeveral decision-making centers
Lack of an official administrator for disaster management
Lack of unified incident command system
Coordination and CooperationNo coordination among the assisting organizations
Lack of an organization for coordinating the aids and donations
Interference of the duties of responsible organizations
Communication and InformationSocial mediaWeakness of the media in managing the rumors
Ineffective social media
Multiplicity of sources of information and news
Organizational communicationWeakness of the inter-organizational communication
Weakness of the intra-organizational communication
RulesRules and RegulationsLack of participation rules for the celebrities
Lack of rules and regulations for collecting cash and non-cash donations
Lack of specified protocols
Supervision and TransparencyWeakness of the participation rules for organizations
Weakness of participation rules for the communities
Insufficient transparency of the aids gathered by GOs and NGOs
Insufficient supervision on the celebrities’ accounts
Multiplicity of the governmental and non-governmental institutions for collecting donations
Structural barriersSecurityThe security of affected areaThe existence of thieves in the affected area
Lack of a proper plan for recognizing affected people from abusing persons
The security of intercity areaInsufficient security of trucks carrying the donations in the intercity routes
Insufficient security of donors and volunteers in the intercity routes
Traffic and OvercrowdingOvercrowding of affected areaPeople overcrowding
Volunteer overcrowding
Traffic of the intercity areaCongestion of vehicles
Inappropriate management of intercity traffic
Heavy traffic
AssessmentNeed assessmentLack of assessing the needs of the affected area
Inadequate consideration of sanitary needs, especially for women, kids, and elders
Lack of using local capacities in identifying the needs
Vulnarability and Capacity assessmentLack of assessing the valnurability and capacity of the affected area
Lack of using local people in identifying the vulnerabilities and capacities
Providing systemDistributionRemoteness and impracticability of some rural areas
Insufficient distribution of the aids to the villages and distant regions
Inequality in distributing the aids
Delay in sending the vital aids
PreservationAmbushing the food under sunlight
Lack of enough equipment for saving
Peoples’ interferences in the preservation process
Cultural settingCommunity trustPeople’s low trust in the governmental institutions
People’s excessive trust in the celebrities
Community disciplinePeople’s rush to the distribution places
The poor culture of waiting in the queues
Benefactor and charity cultureTendency to work in the health section more than another sections
Distrust of the benefactors in the governmental institutions
Parallel services of the charity organizations