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Table 5 Mean PAFAS scores over time overall and for families above and below the 75th percentile in each subcategory at baseline

From: Strong families: a new family skills training programme for challenged and humanitarian settings: a single-arm intervention tested in Afghanistan

PAFASPre-test Mean (SD)
[Min-Max]
Post-test Mean (SD)
[Min-Max]
Follow-up Mean (SD)
[Min-Max]
ANOVAPairwise comparison
F (dftime, dferror); χ2(df)p-value 
PARENTING
Parental Consistency [0–15]
≤ 75th percentile
Score 0–8 (n = 41)
6.39a
(1.51)
[1–8]
5.89
(2.67)
[1–12]
6.60
(2.13)
[3–11]
χ2(2)=
3.49
p = 0.175 
>75th percentile
Score 9+ (n = 24)
10.13
(1.08)
[9–12]
6.90
(2.22)
[4–11]
7.15
(1.84)
[4–10]
F(2,15) = 29.18p < 0.001b, d
Overall7.77
(2.27)
[1–12]
6.28
(2.46)
[1–12]
6.90
(2.02)
[3–11]
F(2,45)=
7.72
p = 0.001b, d
Coercive Parenting [0–15]
≤ 75th percentile
Score 0–10 (n = 47)
6.51
(2.23)
[1–10]
5.36
(3.06)
[0–11]
4.79
(2.97)
[0–12]
F(2.36)=
4.83
p = 0.014b, d
>75th percentile
Score 11+ (n = 22)
12.73
(1.28)
[11–15]
5.00
(2.65)
[1–11]
4.76
(2.83)
[0–9]
F(2.19)=
96.06
p < 0.001b, d
Overall8.49
(3.52)
[1–15]
5.23
(2.88)
[0–11]
4.85
(2.84)
[0–12]
F(1.49,86.76)=
37.72
p < 0.001b, d
Positive Encouragement [0–9]
≤ 75th percentile
Score 0–1 (n = 37)
0.62a
(0.49)
[0–1]
0.83a
(1.12)
[0–5]
0.63a
(0.96)
[0–3]
χ2(2)=
0.46
p = 0.796 
>75th percentile
Score 2+ (n = 33)
3.18a
(1.47)
[2–7]
0.80a
(0.96)
[0–3]
0.90
(0.84)
[0–3]
χ2(2)=
31.76
p < 0.001b, d
Overall1.83a
(1.67)
[0–7]
0.82a
(1.04)
[0–5]
0.77a
(0.89)
[0–3]
χ2(2)=
14.83
p = 0.001b, d
Parent-child Relationship [0–15]
≤ 75th percentile
Score 0–2 (n = 44)
0.73
(0.69)
[0–2]
0.66a
(1.15)
[0–5]
0.31a
(0.80)
[0–3]
χ2(2)=
9.27
p = 0.010d
>75th percentile
Score 3+ (n = 20)
4.90a
(2.43)
[3–11]
0.93a
(1.21)
[0–4]
0.50a
(0.94)
[0–3]
χ2(2)=
17.89
p < 0.001b, d
Overall2.03a
(2.43)
[0–11]
0.74a
(1.13)
[0–5]
0.36a
(0.81)
[0–3]
χ2(2)=
22.54
p < 0.001b, c, d
FAMILY ADJUSTMENT
Parental Adjustment [0–15]
≤ 75th percentile
Score 0–7 (n = 41)
5.12a
(1.86)
[0–7]
4.30
(1.82)
[1–9]
3.94
(2.38)
[0–9]
χ2(2)=
6.0
p = 0.050 
>75th percentile
Score 8+ (n = 26)
8.73a
(1.08)
[8–12]
5.14
(2.57)
[1–11]
4.81
(2.32)
[0–8]
χ2(2)=
24.42
p < 0.001b, d
Overall6.52
(2.38)
[0–12]
4.57
(2.18)
[0–11]
4.30
(2.33)
[0–9]
F(2,50)=
13.51
p < 0.001b, d
Family relationships [0–12]
≤ 75th percentile
Score 0–4 (n = 37)
2.73
(1.41)
[0–4]
2.34
(1.98)
[0–9]
1.70a
(2.04)
[0–8]
χ2(2)=
7.91
p = 0.019d
>75th percentile
Score 5+ (n = 33)
6.09a
(1.42)
[5–9]
2.77
(1.71)
[0–7]
2.03a
(2.18)
[0–8]
χ2(2)=
39.94
p < 0.001b, c, d
Overall4.31
(2.20)
[0–9]
2.56a
(1.83)
[0–9]
1.89a
(2.09)
[0–8]
χ2(2)=
40.73
p < 0.001b. c. d
Parental teamwork [0–9]
≤ 75th percentile
Score 0–4 (n = 44)
1.95a
(1.51)
[0–4]
1.67a
(1.88)
[0–9]
1.28a
(1.47)
[0–6]
χ2(2)=
10.15
p = 0.006d
>75th percentile
Score 5+ (n = 15)
5.53a
(1.06)
[5–9]
2.27
(2.09)
[0–6]
2.11a
(2.47)
[0–8]
χ2(2)=
8.31
p = 0.016b, d
Overall2.86
(2.10)
[0–9]
1.82a
(1.88)
[0–9]
1.38a
(1.71)
[0–8]
χ2(2)=
17.06
p < 0.001b, c, d
  1. statistically significant (p < 0.05), SD standard deviation, aData not normally distributed, non-parametrical tests used for all statistics involving this group; b significant difference between t1 and t2, c significant difference between t2 and t3, d significant difference between t1 and t3