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Table 4 Mean SDQ score over time overall, by gender and in participants with very high total scores at baseline

From: Strong families: a new family skills training programme for challenged and humanitarian settings: a single-arm intervention tested in Afghanistan

Gender-based analysisPre-test
Mean (SD)
[Min-Max]
Post-test
Mean (SD)
[Min-Max]
Follow-up
Mean (SD)
[Min-Max]
ANOVAPairwise comparison
F (dftime, dferror); χ2(df)p-value
SDQ subscales
Emotional problem scale
[0–10]
Boys (n = 38)5.50
(2.05)
[1–10]
4.29
(2.02)
[0–9]
3.46
(2.19)
[0–8]
F(2,31) = 18.03p < 0.001b, d
Girls (n = 33)4.91
(1.96)
[1–8]
4.0
(1.97)
[0–9]
2.70
(1.56)
[0–6]
F(2,24) = 15.02p < 0.001c, d
Overall5.24
(2.0)
[1–10]
4.15
(1.97)
[0–9]
3.14
(1.95)
[0–8]
F(2,58) = 28.90p < 0.001b, c, d
Conduct problem scale
[0–10]
Boys (n = 38)3.77
(1.83)
[0–7]
2.50
(1.31)
[0–6]
2.11
(1.63)
[0–7]
F(2,29) = 4.69p = 0.017b,d
Girls (n = 33)3.30
(2.07)
[0–7]
1.56a
(1.46)
[0–6]
1.64
(1.28)
[0–4]
χ2(2) = 15.31p < 0.001b, d
Overall3.55
(1.94)
[0–7]
2.03a
(1.45)
[0–6]
1.91a
(1.43)
[0–7]
χ2(2) = 25.40p < 0.001b, d
Hyperactivity scale
[0–10]
Boys (n = 38)5.42
(2.02)
[1–10]
3.62
(1.86)
[0–8]
3.19
(2.04)
[0–9]
F(2,33) = 17.55p < 0.001b, d
Girls (n = 33)4.941
(2.20)
[0–9]
3.61
(1.95)
[0–8]
2.86
(1.74)
[0–6]
χ2(2) = 12.65p = 0.002b, d
Overall5.21
(2.09)
[0–10]
3.59
(1.89)
[0–8]
3.08
(1.91)
[0–9]
F(2,61) = 24.20p < 0.001b, d
Peer problem scale
[0–10]
Boys (n = 38)3.80
(1.47)
[0–7]
3.14
(1.59)
[0–7]
2.91
(1.50)
[0–6]
F(2,30) = 4.95p = 0.014d
Girls (n = 33)3.75
(1.57)
[0–6]
3.0
(1.32)
[0–5]
2.61
(1.26)
[0–5]
F(2,24) = 2.43p = 0.11 
Overall3.78
(1.51)
[0–7]
3.07
(1.45)
[0–7]
2.78
(1.39)
[0–6]
F(2,56) = 7.34p = 0.001d
Prosocial scale
[10–0]
Boys (n = 38)6.33
(1.95)
[2–10]
7.74
(1.40)
[4–10]
7.68
(1.96)
[3–10]
F(2,29) = 8.71p = 0.001b, d
Girls (n = 33)6.91
(1.93)
[4–10]
8.13
(1.45)
[5–10]
8.04
(1.53)
[5–10]
F(2,24) = 6.82p = 0.005b, d
Overall6.61
(1.93)
[2–10]
7.90
(1.44)
[4–10]
7.80
(1.79)
[3–10]
F(2,56) = 15.94p < 0.001b, d
Total Difficulty Scale
[0–40]
Boys (n = 38)18.52
(5.08)
[10–32]
13.61
(4.53)
[6–22]
11.24
(5.56)
[2–23]
F(2,25) = 22.14p < 0.001b, d
Girls (n = 33)16.97
(6.23)
[4–26]
12.27
(5.62)
[3–27]
9.74
(4.17)
[2–19]
F(2,21) = 15.69p < 0.001d
Overall17.77
(5.67)
[4–32]
12.9
(5.07)
[3–27]
10.62a(4.98)
[2–23]
χ2(2) = 34.16p < 0.001b, c, d
Very high (20+) on total difficulty scale (n = 24; 12 boys, 12 girls) at baseline
Emotional problem scale6.96
(1.33)
[4–10]
4.46
(2.21)
[1–9]
3.81
(2.29)
[0–8]
F(2,19) = 24.99p < 0.001b, d
Conduct problem scale4.79
(1.50)
[2–7]
2.26
(1.81)
[0–6]
1.86
(1.35)
[0–5]
F(2,18) = 18.66p < 0.001b, d
Hyperactivity scale7.17
(1.20)
[5–10]
3.96
(1.94)
[1–8]
3.38
(2.22)
[0–9]
F(2,19) = 27.55p < 0.001b, d
Peer problem scale4.46
(1.32)
[2–6]
2.78
(1.70)
[0–6]
2.75
(1.48)
[0–6]
F(2,17) = 6.43p = 0.008b, d
Prosocial scale6.26
(2.30)
[2–10]
8.22
(1.54)
[4–10]
7.57
(2.20)
[3–10]
F(2,17) = 15.53p < 0.001b, d
Total Difficulty Scale23.38a
(2.95)
[20–32]
13.91
(5.93)
[3–27]
11.55
(5.64)
[4–23]
χ2(2) = 21.33p < 0.001b, d
  1. statistically significant (p < 0.05); SD: standard deviation, a Data not normally distributed, non-parametrical tests used for all statistics involving this group; b significant difference between t1 and t2, c significant difference between t2 and t3, d significant difference between t1 and t3